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Ancient Greece Final
Transcript of Ancient Greece Final
The Greeks lived on rocky, mountainous lands surrounded by water. Since mountains cover much of Greece, there are few flat areas for farmland. They lived in villages and towns separated by mountains and seas. Even though they spoke the same language, Greek communities saw themselves as separate countries. On the south was the huge Mediterranean Sea, to the west was the Ionian Sea, and to the east was the Aegean Sea. The geography also influenced trade. The Minoans did most things at sea because they were good ship-builders. The Mycenaeans did most things at land because they built fortresses all over the greek mainland. The Greeks created city-states.
Standard 3 - Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy
Standard 4 - Greek Mythology
Standard 6 - Sparta and Athens
The Spartans valued the physical body, like strength and military skill. The Athenians, on the other hand, valued the mental mind more than the body, and this helped shape both cultures. The Spartans believed in discipline, obedience, and courage above everything else. In the Peloponnesian War Sparta declared war against Athens.. When Athens tried to expand their empire, it backfired. Taking advantage of Athens's weakness, Sparta attacked Athensand the war started up once more. The Spartans cut off the supply of food to Athens completely. In 404 BC, the people of Athens, starving and surrounded, surrendered. The Peloponnesian War was over and Sparta was in control
Standard 8 - Greek Contributions
Hypatia - She taught about mathematics and astronomy
Socrates - He believed to keep asking for knowledge. The way he taught was by asking questions, and questioned those answers with more questions. This method is called the Socratic Method. Since he kept asking questions and questioning beliefs, it made some people mad and afraid, so they commended him to death, by which he drank the poison given to him peacefully and died
Plato - He was a student of Socrates. His most famous work was called the Republic. He argued that the society should be run by philosophers since they understood society
Aristotle - He was a student of Plato. He argued that we should live life in balance, or reason, to govern our lives
Standard 2 - Government - Diary Entry
Day 1 - Oligarchy is awesome for the Aristocrats. They are only a small group of people that control basically the entire government, and barely give any power to the citizens. They try to calm us by changing rules, but we still don’t want it. We want change...
Day 2 - We the people, of the Greeks, cannot stand this anymore. The Aristocrats aren’t what they used to be. They don’t even give the people power. I, Peisistratus, plan to overthrow them and start a new form of government - Tyranny.
Day 3 - The plan to overthrow the Aristocracy was successful. We manage to overthrow them, and I plan to bring peace and prosperity to Greece. I also plan to use policies and build temples to unify the city. I can only hope that my son can continue in my footsteps.
Few Years Later… - I, the great Peisistratus’ son, am hopelessly overpowered against the invading Aristocrats. Our city is under attack by another city state. Dad - I am sorry that I failed you.
Aristocrats - WE CONTROL ATHENS AGAIN
Standard 7 - Alexander the Great
Philip II became the king of Macedonia and conquered Greece. After he conquered Greece, he turned his attention to Persia. He could not attack Persia because he got murdered at his daughter's wedding and passed on the throne to his son Alexander. Alexander had to stop the revolt by the Thebans, so within a year he had destroyed Thebes and enslaved the Theban people. He marched on to Gaugamela and defeated the Persian army for the last time and became ruler of what had been the Persian Empire. Alexander left India in 325 BC, but never made it back home. He visited Babylon and got sick, and died. After Alexander died, they created a new culture called Hellenistic, or Greek-like. There were three Hellenistic kingdoms and they were Hellenistic Macedonia, Hellenistic Syria, and Hellenistic Egypt and they were all conquered by Rome.
By, Kyle, Nathan, and Joey
Standard 2 - Government - Diary Entry (cont.)
Few years later - I, Cleisthenes, Can’t stand the rule of the aristocrats anymore. Even though I am a member of one of the most powerful families, I plan to make a change by calling on the people
Day 2 - The revolt is successful! The aristocrats are gone from Greek, now for Greek. I plan to make a new type of government that will bring the city prosperity and - called democracy
Citizen - I love our new leader! He lets use have a place in the government and I love it! With Cleisthenes’ leadership, he grants us freedom and a place in the government, and they actually value our opinion! This will bring peace and prosperity to our city, and I think it is going to last for a long time...unless someone conquers us..
The Macedonians conquered us! Noooooooooo...They barely give us any power, and soon they won’t even let us keep our awesome democratic government and take away our limited power! This is outrageous!
Standard 5 - The Persian Empire
Early in their history, the Persians often fought other people of Southwest Asia. They lost a fight to the Medes, and later Cyrus II led a Persian revolt against the Medes. In addition, to Immortals, the army had a powerful cavalry. Darius, a young prince, claimed the throne and killed all his rivals for power. Darius organized the empire by dividing it into 20 provinces. Darius made many improvements, such as roads. He also built a new capital called Persepolis. Nine years, after the Greeks rebelled, the Persians invaded Greece. This invasion began a series of wars called the Persian wars. The Persians defeated the Greeks in the Second invasion of Greece.
A direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of government wherein the citizens have a direct say in the formulation of laws and issues that affect them while a representative democracy is a form of government wherein its citizens vote for or elect a representative to represent them in Congress or the Senate. Although citizens of both a direct democracy and a representative democracy vote in referendums and elect or remove public officials, in a direct democracy their decisions are always upheld while in a representative democracy, the representative may or may not consider their decisions and act on his own. A direct democracy is suitable only for small communities or countries while most countries with large populations opt for a representative government. In a direct democracy, citizens are more actively involved in their government while citizens of a representative democracy oftentimes let their representatives decide on issues for them. The main advantage of direct is that everyone get there personal opinion counted. Each person's vote is there own and no one has to compromise it to satisfy a majority.
The significance of Greek Mythology falls under 3 major categories: Religion, Society, and Literature. The Greeks were polytheists who believed in many gods or deities. Mythology is a set of stories people tell about their history and their gods. An epic is a long poem, typically one derived from ancient oral tradition, narrating the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary figures or the history of a nation. Finally, fables are a short story typically with animals as, conveying a moral. The ancient Greeks based most of their religious beliefs on their mythology. The greeks used mythology to answer questions about the world around them. Many literary traditions are based off the ancient stories. The greek religion died out a long time ago, but the myths and epics inspired by those ancient beliefs are still read today.
Standard 8 - Greek Contributions (cont.)
Euclid - Was considered one of the world’s Greatest Mathematicians. It is for geometry is is most well know, so much that the branch of geometry we study in school is called Euclidean Geometry
Thucydides - He was one of the greatest historians. He wrote a history of the Peloponnesian War hoping that the people in the future will avoid doing the same thing