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Transcript of Audiolingual Approach
The 1950s and 1960s-the time of traveling Theory of language
-a new interest in phonetic, phonology, morphology and syntax developed.
-language was viewed as a system of structurally-related elements for encoding of meanings, the elements being phonemes, morphemes, words, structures and sentence type
-primary medium of language is oral.
-learning speaking precedes learning reading and writing. is “…a technique of foreign-language instruction that emphasizes audio-lingual skills over reading and writing and is characterized by extensive use of pattern practice” (dictionary.com). -The audio-lingual approach dominated foreign language teaching in the 1950s and 1960s
Its rise is partly due to the fact that because of the rapid increase of international trade, travel, and commerce, ever more people needed to learn English (the new lingua franca). -It was based on Leonard Bloomfield’s technique (informant method) of memorization and repetition in simple foreign language patterns.
-The linguist, without knowing the language, was trained to absorb its basic structure from the informant/native speaker and together with students “gradually learned how to speak this language, as well as to understand much of its basic grammar”In the period of World War II United States required linguists to set up special training program which would be emphasized on fast and easy foreign language acquisition
-The Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) was established in 1942. The 1st step towards Audiolingualism was“Army method”. became The Aural-Oral approach, which was invented by Charles Fries.
According to Fries, language should be taught by using “intensive oral drilling of its basic patterns” (Richards, J.C. et-al. 1987).
This method emphasized:
-proper intonation Behaviorism like structural linguistics is another anti-mentalist, empirically based approach to the study of human behavior.
The human being is an organism capable of a wide repertoire of behaviors. The occurrence of these behaviors is dependent on three crucial steps in learning: First of all, foreign language learning is a mechanical process. Memorization and repetition of dialogues or other drill patterns minimize the risk of making a mistake and increase the chances of giving a correct answer that leads to reinforcement of good habit -Second, Foreign language can be learned and taught more effectively if it is presented in spoken form before students will see written form. “Aural-oral training is needed to provide the foundation for the development of other language skills” (Richards & Rodgers, 1987). -Third, the meaning of words and phrases of a second language should be learned and taught in a linguistic and cultural context. “Teaching a language thus involves teaching aspects of the cultural system of the people who speak the language” (Rivers, 1964: 19-22). Behaviorist theory Behaviorist psychology and had a significant impact on the teaching and learning principles of audio-lingual method STIMULUS RESPONSE REINFORCEMENT The 2nd step towards Audiolingualism