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CHEM 142: Natural Gas
Transcript of CHEM 142: Natural Gas
below boiling point to approx. -260 degrees fahrenheit
results in condensation of gas into liquid form liquefication compresses volume to ~1/600 volume of natural gas Liquefied Natural Gas What is it and how is it produced? takes up less space ~pure methane: photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli by Mike Baron, Chloe Friedman, Cara Motz, and Elise Riley Natural Gas What is natural gas? hydrocarbon gas
found in rock far underground
consists of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide
used for electricity generation, cooking, heating and alternative fuel for transportation
comprises 23% of primary energy production in the industrialized world
powers 47% of Emory's Cliff Shuttles! Compressed Natural Gas Disadvantages Renewable or not? By-products Sustainability Safety Extraction Cost By Products Methane
when not burned completely
leaks during transport Nitrogen oxides
dangerous pollutant Carbon dioxide
greenhouse gas Sustainability If the world were fully dependent on natural gas then...
landfill sources would not be enough
force to use non-renewable reserves sources Extraction requires destruction of land
where plants, animals and people live
increases risk for erosion, landslides, and causes loss of nutrients in soil
controversial hydraulic fracturing (fracking) process
releases methane into air
pollutants into water Cost "light weight" natural gas vehicles cost $5,000-7,000 more than conventional vehicles
"heavy weight" natural gas vehicles cost $30,000 more
fuel stations for LNG cost approx. $1 million per station Safety volatile gas
makes leak detection difficult
fyi- natural gas companies add a sulfuric smell to the natural gas in residential homes used for cooking etc. makes transportation via ship to and from import/export locations around the world much more efficient Sustainability and processing processing requires some use of water
water that is used in boilers and combined cycle systems is polluted during process
polluted water is then discharged into lakes and rivers when no longer usable in power plant Works Cited http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=natural_gas_reserves Works Cited
Brinson, Linda C. "Is Natural Gas a Good Source of Energy?" HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/natural-gas-energy.htm>.
"Cool, Clean Fuel." Center for Liquefied Natural Gas. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. <http://www.lngfacts.org/>.
Damaschke, Nate. "Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Gas, Facts about Natural Gas." Alternative Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://www.tc.umn.edu/~dama0023/naturalgas.html>.
"How Much Natural Gas Is Left." -Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy. U.S. Energy Information Administration, 15 Aug. 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=natural_gas_reserves>.
"Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)." LNG. California Energy Commission, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. <http://www.energy.ca.gov/lng/>.
"Natural Gas and the Environment." NaturalGas.org. N.p., 2004. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://naturalgas.org/environment/naturalgas.asp>.
"Natural Gas." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 17 Oct. 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/natural-gas.html>.
"Water and Energy." Natural Gas Water Usage. Chesapeake Energy, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://www.naturalgaswaterusage.com/Pages/information.aspx>.
Natural Gas - CNG & LNG." Natural Gas - CNG & LNG. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
"U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis." Natural Gas. EIA, n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/>. Basics: Statistics Odorless, colorless, tasteless
Consists of mainly methane
Drawn from gas wells or crude oil production (fracking)
Made by compressing natural gas to less than 1% volume at 1 atm Straight fuel cheaper
Engines are more efficient
Cars last longer
Natural Gas will not pool on ground as liquid Natural gas is not a renewable resource According to the U.S Energy Information Administration, by the year 2040 the U.S. will import 6.55% less natural gas than it did in 2010 due to falling levels of supply Natural gas is being depleted more quickly than petroleum Over 85000 CNG vehicles in the US
1 of every 5 public transit buses runs on CNG
1300 refueling stations in 46 states
Contains a quarter of energy of gasoline in oil fields (associated natural gas)
in independent natural gas fields (unassociated natural gas)
landfills Storage insulated, pressurized tanks above or below ground vapors released auto-refrigeration How is it used? regasification warmed up back to gaseous state heating cooking OR kept in liquid form fuel Conclusion natural gas has been considered worldwide as an alternative fuel source
some argue that it is the best alternative
it burns cleaner, uses less water, is relatively cost effective
while others argue that it is not...
on the basis that it still releases greenhouse gases, it is significantly more expensive, requires fracking, and is dangerous to transport... to name a few
with that said...
many institutions like Emory have invested in this fuel source
it remains an active area of research, both for the government and many corporations Advantages Emissions Economy Processing Water 87% of natural gas used is in the U.S. is from U.S. reserves
stimulates the economy and provides jobs at home
The U.S. has enough reserves to supply itself for 100 years
fueling stations and vehicles are becoming more widely available
much cleaner burning
117 lbs CO2 per million Btu for natural gas vs. 200 lbs CO2 per million Btu for coal
60-90% less pollutants
30-40% less green house gas emissions
study found that the reduction in CO2 emissions, outweighs the greater methane emission http://www.chk.com/NaturalGas/Pages/Basics.aspx uses less than 20% of water used than coal
and less than 0.1% of water used than biofuel (corn) releases no particulate matter
combustion emits low levels of SO2 (aka sludge)
possibility of natural gas fuel cells- it is a source of hydrogen, which is used in fuel cells, these produce no harmful emissions Some pros and cons: expensive to produce additional costs and measures needed to return to gaseous form floats if spilled on water - 1/2 the weight requires little space to store - (30% of space takes to store CNG of same amount of energy) already in liquid form if to be used in vehicles LNG vapor explosive - but only if within the flammable range of 5%-15% when mixed with air. How is it transported and then stored? SHIPS reduced volume allows 1 ship to carry ~5% of nation's average daily demand ~ enough energy to heat >43,00 homes/yr. insulated, double-hulled ships that can maintain such low temperatures LAND via pipeline via trucks (rarely) colorless, odorless, non-toxic, noncorrosive liquid Benefits to CNG