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An Overview of European Westward Expansion: Exploration, Discovery, Conquest, & Colonization in the 1400’s-1500’s

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Craige Edwards

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of An Overview of European Westward Expansion: Exploration, Discovery, Conquest, & Colonization in the 1400’s-1500’s

Africa
- completely dominated by Europe (French, Belgians, Dutch, British)- only one independent country Ethiopia. Most of Africa did not gain independence until the 1950's & 1960's.
Southeast and Asia
- French in Vietnam, British in Burma, Spanish in Philippines, Dutch in Indonesia
India
- French and British compete- British win out,

India did not gain independence until 1948
South America
- Spanish dominated: Others joined ( French, Dutch, British, and Portuguese) too
MORE RESULTS of The World Dominated by Europe(cont)
-The purpose was to serve the homeland (in Europe) whether it was slaves, furs, cotton, fish, spices, tobacco, gold or silver.
-Colonies improved the lives of Europeans greatly by making them wealthy.
-In the Americas the impact on the Native/Indigenous People Groups was....
--More intermarriage by Spanish /Portuguese and French with Native People Groups.
--Disease was devastating. Measles, influenza, smallpox
--Violence very common
-African Slavery expanded all over the world by the Spanish, Portuguese, French, & English.
Impact on New World by European Contact
-The Europeans begin with trading but ended up in Armed conflict.
-Europeans had cannons which gave them an advantage.
-They set up colonies with trading partners.
-Some stayed to protect partners and Europeans
made alliances with local leaders.
-The Dutch and English were less involved with culture/religion of Native People nor were they as interested in converting the Natives to Catholicism.
-They developed mercantilism- which is the taking of materials from colony, then make finished products to sell in Europe for a profit.
Pattern of Contact (How the Europeans carried out their conquest of the New World)
Prince Henry- 1460 looking for trade and an ally against the Muslims/ Congo
Bartholemeu Diaz- made it to Cape of Good Hope 1488 (southern tip of Africa)
Vasco de Gama- went in search of Christians and spices- arrived in India
By 1510 Portuguese claimed lands as far as Goa, India and Macao, China
Portuguese Explorers
Exploration- (from Merriam-Websters Online Dictionary) The act or an instance of exploring which is to travel to a new territory for adventure & discovery.
Colonization- when a group of people from one country move into another country while staying connected to their native country.
Historically some colonists sought to take the resources of the country they have moved into and send those resources to their native country.
Age of Exploration and Colonization
Westward Expansion: Discovery, Conquest, & Exploration in 1400’s-1500’s
Areas once colonized by Europe (In Africa & Asia) did not become independent until the 1930’s-late 1950’s, or Early 1960's.
Some resources of some colonized areas still dominated by European Nations.
Colonized areas are now called Developing Nations.
Poverty & Disease is still common in Developing Nations.
Possible negative Results of European Domination of the New World through Exploration & Colonization
Not all Europeans were interested in Dominating other cultures. Those groups were the ones who did the most good for Indigenious cultures in colonized lands.
European Christian Relief (Charity) Organizations from different denominations (Baptist, Catholic, Interdenominational groups) built hospitals, schools, orphanages, & community centers. (Mother Teresa, Lottie Moon, Bartoloméde Las Casas)
Possible positive Results of European contact
-Spices were very important to Europeans- made food taste better.
-Portuguese again led the way
-Spain set up colonies in the Philippines & stayed till 1898.
-Dutch (The Netherlands) East India Company very aggressively competed with British (England) East India Company
Europe dominated the East Indies and India.
European Spice Trade-East Indies
(How the Europeans eventually dominated India & some of the Far East Asian contries)
Portuguese- trade with Africa- To Portugal as servants than to Brazil to work on plantations
Africans less susceptible to European diseases that Native Americans
But death rate was high 13-30% just on the trip
There were Some African slave trading middlemen active in slave trade.
Slave Trade
believed there had to be a short cut to the East by sailing west.
Christopher Columbus- (Genoan) went west 1492 &arrived in Caribbean thought it was the Indies. The area was called the West Indies-
Ferdinand Magellan- led the 1st voyage around the world.
East and West divided- Pope drew a line dividing new territories between Spain and Portugal (called the TREATY OF TORDESILLAS)
The Spanish...
In his first voyage, da Gama managed to reach in India (his goal) and sail home.

The ruler of Calicut (in India), (Samuri) welcomed da Gama: “The devil take ye!” and was scornful da Gama had not brought valuable presents.
Vasco da Gama
-The Portuguese did not want to have to Pay the Arabs to cross Arabia to get to India so they decided to sail around the Southern tip of Africa.
-Better maps- they followed coasts at first & then used compass
-Better ships- square sails and new hull design, heavy enough to carry cannon
-Use of astrolabe- magnetic compass sail by stars
-Knowledge of wind patterns
-First explorers were the Portuguese (Prince Henry) then Spanish, France and England
Improvements in Navigation
Primarily Attracted to Africa for GOLD & to the East for silks and spices
Difficult to trade with Islamic empires
1453 Byzantine Empire fell to Turks
desire for wealth and adventure
Secondarily for religious zeal- save souls
Summary
Gold, Glory and God
Motives in the Age of Exploration
Natives turned unfriendly and forced them to leave. Ships wormy and food rotten, but colonists wouldn’t help and Indians refused them food. After word of Indian killings reached the monarchs, Columbus and his brother were brought back to Spain in chains.
With 6 Ships, few volunteers and many convicts, Columbus set out to redeem himself.
First hope—Natives brought Columbus and his crew gold nuggets to trade at Hispaniola
Third Voyage: Whoops 2
300 died of disease. A hurricane destroyed all of the ships. Patching together two ships from the scraps, Columbus limped home in disgrace
.
17 ships with 1200 men (6 of them priests to convert the “Indians”) set out to find Indies spices and gold
Second Voyage: Whoops!
Weaknesses:
-Belief in self and abilities made him arrogant and the cruelty of the crew to the Natives (Taino) was also a big weakness.
- His faith in his idea of reaching
the Indies and China by
sailing West made him
foolhardy in believing he reached the Indies when he really was in the Caribbean.
Strengths:
-Belief in self and abilities
-Faith in his idea of reaching the Indies and China by sailing West
-Abilities as a sailor
-Luck.
Christopher Columbus
Magellan and his crew suffered all of the following as he searched for a western sea passage around South America:
Combating the mutiny of 3 out of his 5 ships, he had to kill the captain of one of the ships, then block passage of the other two.
Meeting greedy natives who swarmed over his ships and took everything that wasn’t nailed down.
While navigating through one of the most treacherous passages of rock-lined water in the world: the strait named for him (The Strait of Magellan at the Southern tip of South America.)
He also named the Pacific Ocean.
They found many places along the coast that looked like sea passages that were just bays and inlets.
They were Running low of food and supplies. He thought he had supplies for two years.
His suppliers in Spain fraudulently gave him six months worth. He and the crew ate fresh fish and game, rats and wormy biscuits, even, oxhide bindings, and drank water contaminated with rat urine.
Obstacles & Problems
Although the voyage is attributed to Magellan, Magellan did not survive the journey to circumnavigating the globe. He was killed on the island of Mactan.
Magellan’s Voyage
Glory, God or Gold?
Sought To bring Portugal more trade and power and to spread Christianity (Catholicism), this prince sponsored expeditions beyond the safety of the Mediterranean.
Henry the Navigator
Glory, God or Gold?
Although he sailed along the coast of South America, he found no riches, nor traces of the Indies or China and returned to Spain defeated.
Privately funded, not patroned by Ferdinand and Isabella, Columbus was still “Admiral,” but had no governing powers over colonists.
Fourth Voyage: Defeat
Failures: didn’t really find the Indies or China; didn’t find the riches expected
Successes: found new lands for Spain, found western and eastern routes that took full advantage of prevailing currents and winds
Crew: 87, 84 Andalucian sailors. Only 4 criminals seeking pardons
Problems: superstitions of crew (sea monsters, fall off edge of world)—Columbus disciplined severely, minimized distances (falsely) so they wouldn’t know how far they’d gone.
First Voyage: Discovery
He set out to accomplish Columbus’ goal, to reach the Indies and China by sailing West.
Encouraged by his native Portugal, he gained funding and patronage from Spain.
Inspired by a friend who was both astrologer and cartographer, Magellan determined he could circumnavigate (sail around) the globe.
Ferdinand Magellan
Glory, God or Gold?
Why do you think the cape he rounded (though he never saw it) was named “The Cape of Good Hope”?
A fierce, 13 day storm blew his ship off course rounding the tip of Africa. He only realized how far he had gone when the skies cleared.
Bartholomeu Dias
Glory, God or Gold?
The Portuguese yearned to find a sea route to India to get around Arab “middlemen” who controlled overland routes, keeping prices of pepper and other spices high by keeping supplies low.
Beyond Darkest Africa
Purpose was to serve the homeland whether it was slaves, furs, cotton, fish, spices, tobacco, gold or silver. Colonies improved the lives of Europeans greatly.
In the Americas on the Native/Indigenous People Groups.
More intermarriage by Spanish /Portuguese and French with Native People Groups.
Disease was devastating. Measles, influenza, smallpox
Violence very common
African Slavery expanded all over the world.
Impact on New World by European Contact
Portuguese- trade with Africa- To Portugal as servants than to Brazil to work on plantations
Africans less susceptible to European diseases that Native Americans
But death rate was high 13-30% just on the trip
There were Some African slave trading middlemen active in slave trade.
Slave Trade
Better maps, follow coasts at first, used compass
better ships- square sails and new hull design, heavy enough to carry canon
use of astrolabe- magnetic compass sail by stars
knowledge of wind patterns
First the Portuguese (Prince Henry) then Spanish, France and England
Improvements in Navigation
Not all Europeans were interested in Dominating other cultures. Those groups were the ones who did the most good for Indigenious cultures in colonized lands.
European Christian Relief (Charity) Organizations from different denominations (Baptist, Catholic, Interdenominational groups) built hospitals, schools, orphanages, & community centers. (Mother Teresa, Lottie Moon, Bartoloméde Las Casas)
Possible positive Results of European contact
Africa- completely dominated by Europe (French, Belgians, Dutch, British)- only one independent country Ethiopia
Southeast and Asia- French in Vietnam, British in Burma, Spanish in Philippines, Dutch in Indonesia
India- French and British compete- British win out, not independent until 1948
South America- Spanish dominated: Others joined ( French, Dutch, British, and Portuguese) too
The World Dominated by Europe(cont)
Very important to Europeans- made food palatable
Portuguese again led the way
Spain in the Philippines- stayed till 1898
Dutch East India Company very aggressive- competed with British East India Company
Europe dominated the East Indies and India
European Spice Trade-East Indies
Begin with trading
Armed conflict- Europeans had cannons
set up trading partners- some stay to protect partners and Europeans
made alliances with local leaders
Dutch and English less apt to become involved with culture/religion
developed mercantilism- material from colony- buy finished products form Europe.
Pattern of Contact (How the Europeans carried out their conquest of the New World)
believed had to be a short cut by sailing west
Columbus- (Genoan) went west 1492
arrived in Caribbean thought it was the Indies thus the west Indies-
Magellan- around the world
East and West divided- Pope drew a line Spain and Portugal
The Spanish
In his first voyage, da Gama managed to reach Calicut in India (his goal) and sail home.

The ruler of Calicut, (Samuri) welcomed da Gama: “The devil take ye!” and was scornful da Gama had not brought valuable presents.
Vasco da Gama
Prince Henry- 1460 looking for trade and an ally against the Muslims/ Congo
Diaz- made it to Cape of Good Hope 1488
Vasco de Gama- went in search of Christians and spices- arrived in India
By 1510 Portuguese claimed lands as far as Goa, India and Macao, China
Portuguese Explorers
Glory, God or Gold?
Sought To bring Portugal more trade and power and to spread Christianity (Catholicism), this prince sponsored expeditions beyond the safety of the Mediterranean.
Henry the Navigator
-The Portuguese did not want to have to Pay the Arabs to cross Arabia to get to India so they decided to sail around the Southern tip of Africa.
Natives turned unfriendly and forced them to leave. Ships wormy and food rotten, but colonists wouldn’t help and Indians refused them food. After word of Indian killings reached the monarchs, Columbus and his brother were brought back to Spain in chains.
With 6 Ships, few volunteers and many convicts, Columbus set out to redeem himself.
First hope—Natives brought Columbus and his crew gold nuggets to trade at Hispaniola
Third Voyage: Whoops 2
Failures: didn’t really find the Indies or China; didn’t find the riches expected
Successes: found new lands for Spain, found western and eastern routes that took full advantage of prevailing currents and winds
Crew: 87, 84 Andalucian sailors. Only 4 criminals seeking pardons
Problems: superstitions of crew (sea monsters, fall off edge of world)—Columbus disciplined severely, minimized distances (falsely) so they wouldn’t know how far they’d gone.
First Voyage: Discovery
Weaknesses:
Belief in self and abilities—
made him arrogant and
cruelty of the crew to the Natives (Taino)
Faith in his idea of reaching
the Indies and China by
sailing West—made him
foolhardy in holding to the
idea he’d reached the Indies.
Strengths:
Belief in self and abilities
Faith in his idea of reaching the Indies and China by sailing West
Abilities as a sailor
Luck
Christopher Columbus
Magellan and his crew suffered all of the following as he searched for a western sea passage around South America:
Combating the mutiny of three out of his five ships. To quell it, he had to kill the captain of one of the ships, then block passage of the other two.
Meeting greedy natives who swarmed over his ships and took everything that wasn’t nailed down.
Navigating through one of the most treacherous passages of rock-lined water in the world: the strait named for him.
Finding many places along the coast that looked like sea passages that were just bays and inlets
Running out of food and supplies. He thought he had supplies for two years. His suppliers in Spain fraudulently gave him six months worth. (He and the crew ate fresh fish and game, rats and wormy biscuits, even, oxhide bindings, and drank water contaminated with rat urine.
Obstacles & Problems
Although the voyage is attributed to Magellan, Magellan did not survive the journey to circumnavigating the globe. He was killed on the island of Mactan.
Magellan’s Voyage
Glory, God or Gold?
Although he sailed along the coast of South America, he found no riches, nor traces of the Indies or China and returned to Spain defeated.
Privately funded, not patroned by Ferdinand and Isabella, Columbus was still “Admiral,” but had no governing powers over colonists.
Fourth Voyage: Defeat
300 died of disease. A hurricane destroyed all of the ships. Patching together two ships from the scraps, Columbus limped home in disgrace.
17 ships with 1200 men (6 of them priests to convert the “Indians”) set out to find Indies spices and gold
Second Voyage: Whoops!
He set out to accomplish Columbus’ goal, to reach the Indies and China by sailing West
Spurned by his native Portugal, he gained funding and patronage from Spain.
Inspired by a friend who was both astrologer and cartographer, Magellan determined he could circumnavigate (sail around) the globe..
Ferdinand Magellan
Glory, God or Gold?
Why do you think the cape he rounded (though he never saw it) was named “The Cape of Good Hope”?
A fierce, 13 day storm blew his ship off course rounding the tip of Africa. He only realized how far he had gone when the skies cleared.
Bartholomeu Dias
Glory, God or Gold?
The Portuguese yearned to find a sea route to India to thwart Arab “middlemen” who controlled overland routes, keeping prices of pepper and other spices high by keeping supplies low.
Beyond Darkest Africa
The Voyage of
Amerigo Vespucci
1499-1500
-Vespucci was the first European of this area to believe the New World was a territory unknown to most Europeans instead of thinking it was Asia.
as other explorers did.
-German Map Makers named the new territory "AMERICA" honoring Amerigo Vespucci.
Full transcript