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Spanish Conquest of the New World

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Ms. Mc Caffrey

on 28 December 2016

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Transcript of Spanish Conquest of the New World

Spanish Conquest of the New World
The Age of Exploration
According to the Treaty of Tordesillas, all the land of the new continent, except Brazil, belonged to Spain.
Spanish adventurers now began the conquest of these lands.
These adventurers were known as conquistadors (conquerors).
They were seeking gold and silver.
Hernando Cortes was responsible for the defeat of the Aztec Empire in Mexico, and Francisco Pizarro for the defeat of the Incas in Peru.
Aim: To investigate the Spanish Conquest of the New World.
Hernando Cortes was born in Spain in 1485.
He was a soldier and an adventurer who settled in Cuba.
He volunteered to head an expedition to the mainland of South America.
He was put in charge of an expedition of eleven ships and 500 men to Mexico in 1519.
He landed at Vera Cuz, where he destroyed his ships to show he was not turning back.
As he marched inland he was helped by native tribes who had been conquered by the Aztecs.
They did not like heavy taxes and slavery imposed on them by the Aztecs.
Many were also sacrificed to the Aztec gods.
Cortes and the Aztecs
The Aztecs believed that one day their god Quetzocoatl would return.
When Cortes landed many Aztecs believed that this was the return of their god.
As Cortes came near the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, the Aztec emperor, Montezuma, came to greet him.
The Spaniards were allowed into the city but soon trouble broke out. Montezuma was taken prisoner.
His own people thought he had betrayed them and they killed him.
Cortes and the Spaniards then escaped from Tenochtitlan and got help from neighbouring tribes.
Cortes and the Aztecs
Cortes led 100,000 people against the Aztecs and captured the city.
The city was destroyed, and the Aztecs were forced to work as slaves in mines or in the fields.
Cortes later rebuilt Tenochtitlan as Mexico City.
Soon the Spaniards brought cattle, plants, ploughs and hundreds of priests to establish a colony in the Aztec lands and renamed them New Spain.
Cortes and the Aztecs
Pizarro and the Incas
Francisco Pizarro was sixty years of age when he set out to conquer the Inca Empire in Peru.
He left Panama in 1531 with two ships and 170 men. He also had horses, two cannon and three muskets.
After landing Pizarro and his men headed further south into the Inca Empire.
At Cajamarca, they met the Inca emperor, Atahualpa, and his army.
The Spaniards attacked by surprise and captured Athaualpa.
The captured emperor offered to fill a room full of gold and silver if they would free him.
Inca people brought gold and silver but the Spaniards killed Atahualpa, who was looked upon as a god by his own people.
Pizarro and his men marched south and captured the city of Cuzco.
Pizarro and the Incas
Pizarro seized the Incas treasures and melted them down for gold.
But the Spaniards also fought amongst themselves, and Pizarro was killed by his own soldiers.
The Spaniards later discovered gold and silver mines.
For the next 100 years gold and silver was mined by Incas, who died in their thousands.
Peru and Bolivia supplied about 65% of the gold and silver sent to Spain in the 16th century.
As a result Spain became very wealthy.
Spanish ships sailing to the New World and Spain were attacked by English ships, eventually leading to war between the two countries.

Read pages 139 -141
'Uncovering History'
Questions 1-6 page 143
Full transcript