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Types of Chemical Reactions [Teacher Version]

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Daniel Palmarin

on 24 March 2013

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Transcript of Types of Chemical Reactions [Teacher Version]

1. Synthesis reactions What is a synthesis reaction?
A reaction when two or more chemical reactants combine to form a more complex product. The five types of reactions 1. Synthesis

2. Decomposition

3. Combustion

4. Single Displacement

5. Double Displacement Synthesis examples: Ca + O 2. Decomposition reactions What is a decomposition reaction?
A reaction where a chemical compound breaks down into elements or simpler compounds. Types of Chemical Reactions A + B ---> AB Example: 2Mg + O ---> 2MgO General form: 2 ---> H + Cl 2 2 ---> General form: AB ---> A + B Example: 2H O ---> 2H O + O 2 2 2 2 Decomposition common rules: 1. Binary compounds (2 types of elements) will break down into elements.

2. Carbonates (CO3) will make an oxide (XO) and carbon dioxide (CO2)

3. Chlorates (ClO3) will make a binary compound and oxygen gas.

4. Hydroxides (OH) will make an oxide and water. AD ---> A + D MCO ---> MO + CO 2 3 MClO ---> MCl + O 2 3 Decomposition examples: HgO ---> (s) heat ZnCO 3 ---> Ni(ClO ) ---> 3 2 3. Combustion reactions What is a combustion reaction?
A combustion reaction generally describes when a hydrocarbon (C H ) reacts with oxygen gas (O ). x y 2 The reaction usually requires three components:
1. Fuel - (C H )
2. Oxygen
3. Heat (energy) x y General form: C H + O ---> CO + H O x y 2 2 2 Complete combustion
(almost impossible to achieve) Incomplete combustion causes by-products, like carbon monoxide (CO), in addition to carbon dioxide and water. Example: CH + 2O ---> CO + 2H O 4 2 2 2 Combustion examples: C H + O ---> 3 8 2 C H + O ---> 8 18 2 4. Single Displacement reactions What is a single displacement reaction?
A type of chemical reaction when an element or ion is replaced by another element or ion in a compound. Example: CuCl + Zn ---> ZnCl + Cu 2 2 General form: AB + C ---> AC + B Note: Displacement reactions don't always occur, even if the general form is present. Note: Anions replace anions; cations replace cations negatively charged particle positively charged particle Example: NaCl + K ---> NaCl + K ---> KCl + Na But what about - KCl + Na ---> ? This reaction does not occur, because sodium is less reactive than potassium. General rule: Higher reactive elements will generally be able to replace elements that are less reactive. We use something called an Activity Series to help us. Activity Series of Metals (p. 41) MOST reactive LEAST reactive Activity Series of Halogens (p. 41) Decreasing reactivity Single Displacement examples: Ca + HCl ---> NaI + Br ---> 2 Single Displacement examples: Fe + Al O ---> 2 3 Ag + H SO ---> 2 4 Mg + HNO ---> 3 5. Double Displacement reactions What is a double displacement reaction?
In this reaction, two elements or ions replace each other (switch places) to form two new compounds. Example: MgO + CaS ---> MgS + CaO General form: AB + CD ---> AD + BC Just like single displacement reactions,
anions replace anions - cations replace cations. In double displacement reactions, there is no need to check the Activity Series - instead we check the Solubility Table (p. 44) to ensure that the reactants are soluble. If either reactants are insoluble, the reaction cannot occur and you label your product as N.R. (no reaction). Double displacement reaction examples: AgNO + NaCl ---> 3 (aq) (s) K SO + Ba(NO ) ---> (aq) 4 2 3 (aq) 2 Double Displacement examples: Three types of products can form in a double displacement reaction: precipitate, water, or gas. Note: If the products do not contain a precipitate, water or gas, then no reaction occurred. Ca(NO ) + HCl ---> 3 2 CaBr + Fe(OH) ---> 2 The five types of reactions 1. Synthesis

2. Decomposition

3. Combustion

4. Single Displacement

5. Double Displacement The five types of reactions 1. Synthesis

2. Decomposition

3. Combustion

4. Single Displacement

5. Double Displacement The five types of reactions 1. Synthesis

2. Decomposition

3. Combustion

4. Single Displacement

5. Double Displacement The five types of reactions 1. Synthesis

2. Decomposition

3. Combustion

4. Single Displacement

5. Double Displacement Note: When balancing combustion reactions, it's easier to always balance H's before O's. 3 2
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