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The Solar System

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by

Jasmine Smith

on 7 March 2014

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Transcript of The Solar System


Mars
Mars (Ares) is the Roman god of War. The planet probably got this name due to its red color.
Planets
Eight planets Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Neptune, Earth, Mercury, Uranus, Venus (Pluto is no longer qualified)
Each planets has its own track, all of which orbit the Sun
Most of the planets have moons, with the exeption of Mercury and Venus
A moon is a natrual satalite of a planet
Stories:
Earth
Jupiter
Uranus
Saturn
Neptune
Mercury
Venus
Mars
Mercury
The closest planet to the sun
It has the
Mercury
The closest planet to the
The Solar System
The Views of Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that the planets rotated around the Sun. (published in 1543)
He also thought that...
Sun was in the centre of the universe and did not move, nor did the stars.
Sun and stars do move and the Sun is not in the centre of the universe
the orbits of the planets were circular
It was Elliptical (oval)

The Heliocentric system/concept/model.
The Views of Kepler
The Views of Galileo
The Sun
Largest object in the solar system
99.8% of the total mass of the solar system
Magnetic field is very strong
70% of hydrogen, 28% of helium, 2% of metal
4.5 billion years old
He came to this conclusion with some simple explainations
1. The planets in this system naturally vary in brightness as they are not always the same distance from the Earth.

2. The retrograde motion from a heliocentric (sun-centred) perspective.
The Earth orbits the Sun faster than the outer planets (Mars, Jupitar, Saturn).
Views of Different Astronamists
DEFINITION:
Retrograde - Of or relating to the orbital revolution of a planetary or other celestial body that moves clockwise from east to west, in the direction opposite to most celestial bodies.

Celestial body - Objects visible in the sky.

The Moon
The Moon is the only natural satellite of Earth
Diameter 3,476 km
Neil Armstrong was the first person to walk on the Moon
No Atomsphere
27 days for the moon to orbit the earth
4.5 billion years old
The moon is 384,400 km away from earth
November 2009 water was found on the moon
Geocentric Model
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Less gravity than earth
It's the closest to the sun
Mainly made out of heavy metal (mostly iron)
No atmosphere
No moons
Second closest to the sun, Closest to earth
It's the brigtest and hottest planet
It takes 262 days for venus to orbit round the sun
The planet is covered by clouds of water vapour and sulphric acid
No moon
Atmosphere made up of carbon dioxide
Ptolemaic system
Developed by philosophers in Ancient Greece.
Named after Claudius Ptolemy (circa 90 to 168 A.D)
Geocentric already existed before Ptolemy.
Described in many early Greek manuscripts.
Aristotle wrote about the model.
Developed to explain how the Sun, the stars and the Planets orbited around the Earth, which did not move.
Which was proved wrong.
In his first project, the Mysterium Cosmographium, Johannes Kepler (Born 1571) noted several important points about the Solar system in his discoveries:
Kepler claimed that the solar system is basicly 3D geometric shapes inscribed in a sphere
He believed that every planet orbiting around the sun has has an ellipse along two foci (sing: focus)
Kepler has confirmed 3 laws of planetary motion, all of which includes geometry associated with orbits
Atmoshpere containing 21% of oxygen
Planet with life
Third planet from the sun
365.25 days to orbit round the sun
150 millions km from the sun
Not an exact sphere
Mars
Two moons
The core is mainly made up of iron and sulfur
It's the most similar to earth compared to the other planets
Mars has an atmosphere (95.3% carbon dioxide and 2.7% nitrogen)
Jupiter
Largest plaent in the solar system
Many different cloud formations and storms in the atmosphere
Jupiter is a very colorful planet
50 moons
The Solar System
By: Heather, Jasmine, William, Will and Jimmy
Saturn
Similar to Jupiter but smaller
Second largest planet
53 moons
Ring
Uranus
Atmosphere is made up of methane, hydrogen and helium
27 moons
Neptune
atmosphere contains hydrogen, helium and methane
13 moons
Very windy
Galileo Galilei - first astronomer to use the telescope to study the heavens.
Made many observations that finally convinced people that the heliocentric model was correct.
The Sun and Moon
Galileo discovered the spots on the Sun and that the surface of the Moon was rough.
Galileo's Observations
Jupiter's Moon
He first saw near Jupiter was something he first thought was stars. Then he realised that the stars were going around Jupiter.
This caused a mayor argument of the Ptolemaic model.
This discovery showed that...
Earth couldn't be the only centre of motion
Jupiter's Moons were not being left behind as Jupiter moved.
The Phases of Venus
Like the Moon, Venus also has phases based on the planet's position relative to the Sun and the earth.
Kepler's Obserations

During his lifetime, Kepler's major obvervations were:

The sum of any two foci on the ellipse of an orbit is equadistance
The further the planet, the sloweer the speed
Sectors of the same ellipse and with the same time traveled have the same area in any planet
How many planets are there?
How many planets doesn't have a moon?
Say one thing that Galileo did.

Say one thing that Kepler discovered.


8
Mercury and Venus
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