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Typically, connecting through a gateway is preferred when devices are sensitive to cost, power, or location.
Many M2M applications will require connectivity between end devices. Peer-to-peer (P2P) connectivity can be supported in this architecture at various levels of hierarchy depending on latency requirements and the type of information exchanged.
Synchronised behaviour of M2M devices that simultaneously access the network.
M2M applications generating recurring data transmissions precisely at synchronous time intervals.
An external event triggering massive number of M2M devices to attach/connect all at once.
Large number of sensors triggering at once. Ex: Hydrology monitoring during heavy rain, alarm when intruders break in.
A malfunctioning in M2M application/server. Ex: When M2M server does not acknowledge receipt of data sent by the M2M devices, and all M2M devices keep resending the data.
Many M2M roaming devices lose network coverage following a base station outage.
When a single M2M device causes congestion, it should not affect other M2M and non-M2M devices.
Prevent complete network collapse, with only emergency services being guaranteed to function. (during events like earthquakes, break-in etc….)
IEEE Paper - From mobile to internet by Geng Wu, Shilpa Talwar, Kerstin Johnsson, Nageen Himayat, and Kevin D. Johnson, Intel.
M2M Communications: A System Approach, by David Boswarthick, Omar Elloumi, Olivier Hersent.
Articles and Publications by AT & T, QUALCOMM, Broadcom and CISCO.
Kurose and Keith Ross- www.pearsoned.com
Congestion control in LTE based Machine Type Communication - Dalicia Bouallouche, INRIA, University of Rennes 1. Multitier:
In the multitier hierarchy shown in Fig, large cells provide ubiquitous coverage to M2M devices and support high mobility, while smaller network elements such as relays and pico/femto access points (APs) bring connectivity closer to the devices, improving link reliability and increasing system capacity. The lower cost of smaller APs makes them an attractive method of adding capacity, since it is done at a lower cost per bit. Devices (mobile stations) can also serve as a tier in the network hierarchy by creating P2P nanocells.
Fig also shows multiple access networks being integrated and managed as part of a single hierarchical network. Here, the additional spectrum and connectivity available across different networks (e.g., WiFi and cellular) may be exploited synergistically to further improve system capacity and device quality of service. The cost associated with this additional capacity may be very low since the alternate spectrum could essentially be free (e.g., unlicensed spectrum). New network devices, such as the integrated femtocell access point (AP), with licensed and unlicensed capabilities, can implement tighter coupling across these radio technologies, efficiently utilizing the available spectrum. M2M signalling congestion in mobile core network.
The number of cellular network connections worldwide used for M2M communication was 47.7 million in 2008. Forecast is that the number of M2M connections will grow to 187 million by 2014.
Future M2M ecosystems will be complex and span many industries, including telecom and electronics. Unlike current M2M markets, which are highly segmented and often rely on proprietary solutions, future M2M markets will need to be based on industry standards to achieve explosive growth.
Support of huge number (up to billions) of M2M devices.(i.e. overload and congestion).
Supporting a wide range of M2M applications with significantly different traffic patterns and QoS(Quality of Service) requirements.
Supporting different types of sensors with low power and low mobility.
Wireless M2M networks need to consistently provide reliable communication services (in terms of effective QoS and security) for the M2M applications.
Scalable, smart, and adaptive protocols and algorithms should be designed and implemented.
These protocols and algorithms should intelligently adapt to dynamic network environments characterized by a large amount of low-power M2M devices, heterogeneous networks with limited bandwidth, and many coexisting applications with diverse QoS requirements.
Replace on-site meter readings with electronic transmissions from meters to your billing systems.
Monitor electricity grids for capacity and outage conditions, to enable isolation and repair of disruptions.
Speed service calls by route planning and tracking for pick-ups and delivery.
Remotely monitor patient conditions after medical procedures, so they can recover in comfort at home.
Provide visibility into remote assets, like construction equipment or pipelines.
Networks to update digital billboards. This allows advertisers to display different messages based on time of day or day-of-week, and allows quick global changes for messages, such as pricing changes for gasoline.
M2M devices - A device capable of replying to request data contained within those devices or capable of transmitting data contained within those devices autonomously.
M2M area network - Provides connectivity between M2M devices and M2M Gateway. Ex: Personal Area Network, Zigbee, Bluetooth etc.
M2M Gateways - Use M2M capabilities to ensure M2M devices interworking and inter connections to the communication networks.
M2M communication networks – Communicates between the M2M gateways and M2M application(server). Can be further broken down into Access, Transport and Core networks.
M2M Applications (Server) – Contains the middleware layer where data goes through various application services and is used by the specific business processing engines. A software agent or process by which the data can be analysed, reported and acted upon. Machine to machine (M2M) refers to technologies that allow both wireless and wired systems to communicate with other devices of the same ability. M2M uses a device (such as a sensor or meter) to capture an event (such as temperature, inventory level, etc.), which is relayed through a network (wireless, wired or hybrid) to an application (software program), that translates the captured event into meaningful information (for example, items need to be restocked).
M2M applications aim to bridge the intelligence in the machine by delegating tasks to them, in order to automate everyday life process. The M2M applications require no(or only limited) human intervention. The role of human is only to collect data.
Multiply the number of connected devices you have, and you can see the powerful possibilities.
Organizations connecting M2M devices to a network can quickly see the potential savings in time, cost and labour. M2M Devices However, there is not just a single method which is applicable to all overload scenarios. Operators will have to employ a range of overload-control mechanisms to protect their networks. The below table illustrates some of the mechanisms activated in certain overload scenarios: Hierarchical Architecture with multi-radio and multi-tier: M2M Architecture : A high level M2M system architecture What is the solution?!!
Hierarchical Network Architecture: Shreya Chippagiri
Varsha Govind Raj
PESIT, Bangalore. MACHINE TO MACHINE DEVICES
‘THE INTERNET OF THINGS’
Enterprise networking giant Cisco has unveiled a new compact router in an attempt to bring internet to devices which are normally not connected to the web, like refrigerators and ATMs.
The Cisco 819 Integrated Services Router (ISR) Machine-to-Machine Gateway has been designed to bring networking capabilities to non-traditional IP devices, in-line with Cisco’s vision for ‘Internet of Things’.
It extends 3G/4G wireless WAN network services to small devices in challenging environments. It also supports standalone a Global Positioning System for retrieving real-time GPS data via location-based applications.
The Cisco 819 Integrated Services Routers support the latest Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) LTE standards for 4G LTE.
Applications: The system will enable portable medical services with remote monitoring of patients; track vehicles and offer text updates; speed up replenishing of vending machines; and increase security such as video surveillance from ATM machines.
Cisco has high hopes for the router, informing that it expects devices like the Cisco 819 to power more than 20 billion devices by 2020.
. CISCO and M2M Fun Internet Applications Tweet-a-watt:
monitor energy use Slingbox: watch,
control cable TV remotely Internet
refrigerator Internet phones Web-enabled toaster +
weather forecaster IP picture frame KEY ELEMENTS OF M2M DEVICES: APPLICATIONS: Future Of M2M: Challenges to be faced: Proposed Solutions: Overloading and Congestion: REFERENCES: