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Transcript of Glob1: Globalization
in sociological perspective
This Prezi by Piotr Konieczny
Licenced under CC-BY-SA 3.0
The term “GLOBALIZATION” has many definitions and means different things in different contexts
The term was first defined by sociologist Roland Robertson as “the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole”. --Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (1992)
Al-Rodhan, Nayef R.F. and Gérard Stoudmann in Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition (2006) propose the following definition: "Globalization is a process that encompasses the causes, course, and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activities."
We generally recognize three dimensions of globalization
CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION refers to
CULTURAL HOMOGENIZATION - a neutral term focusing on cultures becoming increasingly similar to one another
Cultural globalization has been studied under a wide variety of names
Cultural globalization is the most visible part of globalization
WESTERNIZATION - is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture
AMERICANIZATION - is a process whereby societies come under or adopt American culture
MCDONALDIZATION - a pejorative term popularized by sociologist George Ritzer who uses the McDonald restaurant as a metaphor for deeper cultural changes
CULTURAL HEGEMONY - this term is often found in Marxist literature. It focuses on the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class, who manipulate the culture of the society — the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores — so that their ruling-class cultural values become the worldview that is imposed and accepted as the cultural norm
the transmission of ideas, meanings and values across national borders
the emergence of common systems of symbols and uniform behavioral norms across much of the world
the spread of commodities and ideologies, which become standardized around the world
An example of Westernization: Meiji period, Japan, Prince Yorihito Higashifushimi in typical Western naval dress uniform with white gloves, epaulettes, medals and hat
McDonald in Seoul
Cultural globalization is not one way - it goes not only from West to East but also in other directions
ORIENTALISM - is a process whereby societies come under or adopt (East) Asian culture
POLITICAL GLOBALIZATION refers to the development of a political infrastructure of global governance.
Intergovernmental organizations like UN or the World Bank have governments as their members.
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are gaining increasing power to set the global agenda, and represent a more democratic aspect of the political globalization
The only quasi-democratic global governance organization, the UN General Assembly, lacks power to make and enforce any significant decisions
A SUPRANATIONAL UNION is a type of multi-national confederation or federation where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The concept of supranational union is sometimes used to describe the European Union, as a new type of political entity.
Electronic Frontiers Foundation
Economic integration is a commonly recognized element of globalization
ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, service, technology, and capital
Economic integration is itself multifaceted, represented by
The rise of multinational firms
Trade globalization is the most commonly used measure of economic integration
Trade globalization is: (Imports + Exports) / (Gross National Income)
Trade globalization loosely represents the amount of capital and the number of a jobs in a country that depend on contact with the outside world
The historical origins of globalization are the subject of on-going debate. Though several scholars situate the origins of globalization in the modern era, others regard it as a phenomenon with a long history.
Source: Chase-Dunn et al., 2000
Trade globalization first started to boom in the thirteenth century (but it existed for thousands of years, starting with the first trade relationship between ancient countries...)
13th century world-system
Wars interrupt trade and globalization
Theories of globalization
MODERNIZATION THEORY argues simply that globalization is inevitable. It may not be good for society, but it is definitely good for productivity.
Tensions arise when people don’t want to “modernize”.
DEPENDENCY THEORY stresses the “development of underdevelopment”. Andre Gunder Frank coined the term with reference to post-colonial Africa. Countries have no choice but to join the global world-economy, but that economy will attempt to keep them "in their place".
WORLD-SYSTEM THEORY focuses on the inter-regional and transnational DIVISION OF LABOR, which divides the world into core countries, semi-periphery countries and the periphery countries.
Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:World_trade_map.PNG
Core countries focus on higher skill, capital-intensive production, and the rest of the world focuses on low-skill, labor-intensive production and extraction of raw materials. This constantly reinforces the dominance of the core countries.
Nonetheless, the system is dynamic, in part as a result of revolutions in transport technology, and individual states can gain or lose the core (semi-periphery, periphery) status over time.
Is globalization good or bad? Opinions differ...
Modernization theory stresses the need for people to accept globalization
Dependency theory stresses that even if they do they may not benefit in the short run
A more developed version of the dependency theory is the world-system theory
World-system theory stresses that changes are inevitable in the long run
Globalization is fueled by the changes in technology - in particular, transportation (for economy) and communication (for culture)
In the past, political globalization was attempted through warfare (the creation of great empires)
Today, it is attempted through diplomacy, often through intergovernmental organizations.
Critics point to
Supporters point to
outsourcing leading to the loss of jobs and growing inequality within countries
stalled development (exploitation of periphery by the core) leading to inequality on the global level
Global inequality measured through the GINI coefficient
Percentage of population living on less than $1.25 per day. UN estimates 2000–2006.
McDonaldization of culture - loss of unique cultural elements (languages, etc.)
improved living conditions and elimination of poverty as a result of international trade
the law of COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE refers to the ability of a party to produce a particular good or service at a lower marginal and opportunity cost over another. Even if one country is more efficient in the production of all goods (absolute advantage in all goods) than the other, both countries will still gain by trading with each other, as long as they have different relative efficiencies
In the end, globalization has mixed results.
Absolute poverty may be decreasing...
...but relative poverty (inequality) is rising in many countries
Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Extreme_poverty_1981%E2%80%932008.png
the proportion of world population in extreme poverty 1981–2008 according to the World Bank has declined
Human Development Index trends
Spread of positive cultural values
democracy (and peace - democratic peace theory)
human right values
greater knowledge of other cultures leads to greater tolerance
in economic terms
in cultural terms
is our culture better or worse then centuries ago?
Some videos for discussion
We feel instinctively that societies with huge income gaps are somehow going wrong. Richard Wilkinson charts the hard data on economic inequality, and shows what gets worse when rich and poor are too far apart: real effects on health, lifespan, even such basic values as trust.
In "The Spirit Level," Richard Wilkinson charts data that proves societies that are more equal are healthier, happier societies
We're at a unique moment in history, says UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown: we can use today's interconnectedness to develop our shared global ethic -- and work together to confront the challenges of poverty, security, climate change and the economy.
Britain's former prime minister Gordon Brown played a key role in shaping the G20 nations' response to the world's financial crisis, and was a powerful advocate for a coordinated global response to problems such as climate change, poverty and social justice
The world is changing quickly - but we tend to not think that it does.
How would we define globalization?
How many of those can we recognize?
Many scholars think that international organizations like those are going to be increasingly powerful in the future.
Is globalization good or bad? What do you think?
Pankaj Ghemawat: Actually, the world isn't flat
Our world is not flat, says ecnomist Pankaj Ghemawat -- it's at best semi-globalized, with limited interactions between countries and economies
Ian Goldin: Navigating our global future
As globalization and technological advances bring us hurtling towards a new integrated future, Ian Goldin warns that not all people may benefit equally. But, he says, if we can recognize this danger, we might yet realize the possibility of improved life for everyone.
The current world is a result of steady expansion and evolution of CAPITALISM over the past few hundred years
Is the word globalizing? Glocalization theory argues that global products are significantly customized to local tastes (ex. bulgogi pizza).
Robertson and White in "What is Globalization" (2008) write that "Globalization consists primarily of two major directional tendencies, increasing global connectivity and increasing global consciousness."
What other local adaptations of global culture can we think of?
How Korean is Samsung?
Samsung is less Korean than McDonald is American...
Recommended reading: The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger
Video: How containers have transformed trade
The most famous global governance institution is the United Nations (UN).
Examples of glocalization: movie posters. What do they tell us about the difference between the "Western" and Korean movie markets?
Most new global governance structures are largely undemocratic (we don't elect representatives to them).
Some famous NGO include
Can we name some others (international)?
Médecins Sans Frontières
World Social Forum
Intergovernmental organizations evolved in the early 19th century in Europe ( International Telecommunication Union, 1865)
Let's guess. What % of Samsung a) revenue b) shareholders and c) employees are domestic (Korean)?
<25%, 25-50%, 50-75% or <90%?
a) revenue: ~10%
b) shareholders: ~60
c) employees: ~35%
What are the main arguments of the video? What surprised you? Do you think the speaker is right?
Measuring cultural globalization
There have been numerous attempts to measure globalization, typically using indices that capture quantitative data for trade flows, political integration, and other measures. Cultural globalization, however, is much more difficult to capture using quantitative data, because it is difficult to find easily verifiable data of the flow of ideas, opinions, and fashions. One attempt to do so was the Cultural Globalization Index proposed by Randolph Kluver and Wayne Fu in 2004.
This effort measured cultural flow by using global trade in media products (books, periodicals, and newspapers) as a proxy for cultural flow.
The authors use the imports and exports of books and brochures, newspapers and periodicals because all other possible indicators lack systematic data sources.
How could we measure cultural globalization?
The Great Transformation of Korean Wave | Part 1: Hallyu Now. KBS World TV
The Great Transformation of Korean Wave | Part 2 - The hub of the Korean wave, 'KBS World'. KBS World TV
The Great Transformation of Korean Wave | Part 3: Future of the Korean Wave. KBS World TV
[Korean Culture Series] Korean Wave, Hallyu
Korean Wave - Korea's impact on the world
Which country is more globalized: Korea or Japan?
Other documentaries about culture and globalization
Cultural Awareness in Globalized World | Ralph Strozza
The myth of globalisation | Peter Alfandary
Globalization disperses any and every culture throughout the world, making the planet more heterogeneous, creating deeper connection between groups. For example, teenagers all around the world absorb Japanese anime, K-pop music, and American movies,
Globalization makes the culture more homegenous, leading to a unified world culture that consists of a fusion of various national cultures. For example, foods like soda, sushi or pasta became international.
Globalization creates a blend of the heterogeneous and homogeneus society - a fusion of cultures around the world.
How could a fusion culture look in 100 years?
Staying on top of the international news
A good way to be a global citizen and to be aware of various issues affecting the world is to keep up with the world news.
What are some of the major issues in world politics right now?
in Asia and Oceania?
in the South America?
in the Middle East?
You can get extra points by blogging about world affairs and how they are related to globalization
Are there others you can add?
The 6 metaphors of globalization
Read more about the metaphors in the original paper that introduced this idea:
Christine Sleeter (2003) Teaching Globalizaton, Multicultural Perspectives,5:2, 3-9, DOI: 10.1207/S15327892MCP0502_2
A metaphor is a figure of speech that refers, for rhetorical effect, to one thing by mentioning another thing.
Sleeter (2003) identified 6 metaphors of globalization that are common in media.
The global village metaphor:
Summary: thanks to advancements in transportation and communication, global cultures are merging into one.
In detail: It notes that advances in transportation and communication lead to increased interaction with culturally diverse groups. Global cultural exchange is becoming a part of everyday life. The global village metaphor draws attention to cultural and language differences around the world, and the need to learn respect for these differences. Examples emphasize various ways that people move about globally and interact, such as through migration, travel, and communicating over the Internet.
Military competition metaphor (also called vari-ous other names such as the medieval metaphor or the post-Cold War metaphor):
Summary: Countries fight for dominance on a global arena. In recent history, the "good guys" were and are aligned with the US.
In detail: It draws attention to multiple political/military authorities competing for power and dominance. Often those who use this metaphor see global battles between good and evil (and invariably place themselves on the side of the good), and emphasize the need to build strategies for defense and offense. Examples emphasize shifting political and military alliances among nations, the role of international organizations, such as the United Nations, and a critical perspective toward nations that challenge U.S.supremacy.
The networks of interdependence metaphor (which has also been termed “complex adaptive system”):
Summary: global economy is interconnected, which improves efficiency and benefits everyone.
In detail: It views different entities as directly interconnected and serving each other. A change to one part of an interdependent system has a rippling effect, but as changes take place the system will attempt to regain equilibrium and stability. Examples emphasize how different nations exchange goods through trade in order to maximize efficiency and consumer choice. For example, market demand, specialization of production, and free trade assume that economic relations operate within networks of interdependence, in which all parties benefit from the relationship.
The McWorld metaphor:
Summary: Commercialized, western culture is succesfully selling itself accross the world through the capitalistic markets.
In detail: It draws attention to consumerism without borders. Increasingly the world’s population is participating in one gigantic market, developing shared tastes and a shared global culture as mass consumer products, media, and fast food chains spread. Examples emphasize the spread of mass global culture. It is more critical of the merging of cultures then global village, assuming that some cultures (ex. the West) have much more power and their culture is dominating others (ex. through Hollywood movies or Western fast food chains).
The neo-colonialism metaphor:
Summary: The globalized global economy benefits only or primarily those in power (rich), both on the micro (rich individuals) and marco (rich countries) levels. Poor individuals and countries are exploited, and most profits go to the rich.
In detail: it focuses on connections between racism and capitalism historically and now, critiquing “a power relationship in which an external nation state indirectly controls the political and economic system of another nation state and/or people—often former colonies”. This metaphor situates goods used in everyday life within global networks of production under profit-driven systems that mirror and reproduce colonial relations of earlier decades. Examples focus on systems of exploitation, global sweat-shops, contemporary forms of racism and poverty, and worker solidarity movements.
The spaceship Earth metaphor (or environmental globalization view):
Summary: Earth has one ecosystem and in a global world we all need to work together to preserve it.
In detail: it draws attention to the integrated nature of earth’s ecosystems. According to this metaphor, we live in an ecosystem that is being threatened by human actions. For our own survival, we need to learn to build environmentally sustainable systems. It emphasizes environmental issues.
There are many others definitions too.
Can we think of some other examples?
Korean wave is the increase in global popularity of South Korean culture since the 1990s
What are the most visible (successful) Korean wave elements in the world?
How can we stay on top of international (not local) news?
(Check The Economist website for some ideas )
in the USA?
When do you think globalization started?