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Biology STAAR Review Reporting Category 1

Review of Readiness Standards - Reporting Category One
by

Donna Sue Perkins

on 21 July 2016

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Transcript of Biology STAAR Review Reporting Category 1

Biology
STAAR Test
Review

REPORTING CATEGORY
1
Cell Structure and Function
Cellular Processes
Viruses
Cell Cycle
Biomolecules
Proteins
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acid
Donna Sue Perkins
April 2012
Just like the human body, cells must carry
out specific functions for an organism to
maintain homeostasis.
Cellular Reproduction uses the
nucleus and centrioles.
Transportation of nutrients
occurs through the cell membrane,
endoplasmic reticulum,golgi body
& vacuoles
These functions include: reproduction, transport of nutrients & waste products, production & use of energy and communication.
Production & Use of Energy organelles
includes the
chloroplast & mitochondrion.
Communication Organelles include the
nucleus, ribosome, vesicles and
intra-cellular junctions.
Homeostasis is the maintenance of
an internal balance in the cell or organism.
Positive and negative feedback loops signal
cell organelles to cause changes to maintain
a stable internal environment.
Examples of feedback loops include:

osmotic pressure
calcium ion regulation
blood sugar regulation
The basic virus structure includes a capsid, protein coat, envelope with DNA or RNA.
Viruses reproduce by taking over normal healthy cells and injecting their nucleic acids into the cells.
Biomolecules are organic molecules that are made up of
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sometimes phosphorus.
Proteins are made of chain of amino acids
that can be used to make the proteins that
the body needs to maintain muscles, bones
& other body organs. Proteins control the
structure and metabolism of cells.
Lipids are fats, oils used for energy storage,
cell membrane composition and composition
of vitamins and steroids.
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. Carbohydrates store energy,
starch in plants and glycogen in animals, add
structure to organism, cellulose in cell wall of plant
and chitin in cell wall of fungi. Carbohydrates also
play a role in nucleic acids by providing the sugar
deoxyribose for DNA and ribose for RNA.
Nucleic Acids include DNA and RNA.
DNA , an organism’s hereditary code,
controls the synthesis of RNA molecules
which work to form proteins. Nucleic
acids are made up of nucleotides
which are composed of a nitrogen base,
phosphate and sugar.
The shape of a virus allows the virus to match the shape of certain receptors sites found in the cell membrane allowing attachment followed by injection of viral nucleic acid.
The cell cycle is divided into three parts:
Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis.
Interphase is divided into G1, organelles replicate
and cell size increase, S phase, synthesis or
replication of DNA, and G2, re-check DNA
and prepare to divide.
Mitosis is the division of the nucleus and includes:
Prophase,
Metaphase,
Anaphase
& Telophase.
Cytokinesis, division of cytoplasm,
follows mitosis. Mitosis creates two
diploid (2N) daughter cells
identical to original cell.
Punnett squares are graphic organizers used to predict the outcome of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. Letters are used to represent alleles or versions of a trait and are called the genotype. Phenotypes are the physical appearance the alleles.
Full transcript