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Factors to consider in writing Instructional Materials

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raff akwa

on 29 June 2014

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Transcript of Factors to consider in writing Instructional Materials

1. Understanding
requires matching the materials to the learners abilities and prior knowledge.
if the students did not understand the materials, frustration sets in and making it more difficult.
the teacher should must know the materials if it is suited on the level of understanding of the students.
involves organizing the material so that it is clear to the students.
Directions, objectives, and main ideas are stated clearly. Internal and final summaries cover the content.
transition between main ideas is smooth and well integrated.
writing is not vague.
sufficient examples are provided.
new terms are defined.
adequate practice and review assignments reinforce new learning.
3. Sequencing
refers to the arrangement of the materials to provide for continuous and cumulative learning where complex concepts are taken only after prerequisite skills and concepts have been mastered.
the four basic ways of sequencing a material are (Simple to complex, Parts to whole, Whole to parts, and Chronological arrangements.
4. Balancing
materials require establishing vertical and horizontal balance or relationships.
Vertical relationships refer to a building of content and experiences in the lesson, unit and course level.
Horizontal relationships establish a multidisciplinary and unified view of different subjects (e.g. the content of the social studies course is related to English and Science.
by: Ornstein
Factors to consider in writing Instructional Materials
5. Explaining
refers to the way headings, terms, illustrations, and summary exercises integrated with the content.
Does the example illustrate major concepts?
Are the major ideas identified in the objectives and overview?
Do the headings outline a logical development of content?
Do the materials show relationships among topics, events, facts to present an in-depth view of major concepts?
6. Pacing
refers to how much and quickly the lessons in the books are presented.
the volume or the length should not overwhelm the students.
there must be enough to have an effect.
7. Reviewing
refers to the extent to which the material allows students to link new ideas to old concepts in a form of review.
less proficient learners would need more review or linking than the more proficient ones.
8. Elaborating
ensures that students learn better through a riety of ways
The idea is to provide in the textbook opportunities for students to transform information to one form to another, and to apply information to new knowledge - by using various techniques such as comparing and contrasting, drawing inferences, paraphrasing, summarizing and predicting.
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