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MAIN TRENDS IN PHONEME THEORY

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Elena Kushkina

on 7 December 2014

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Transcript of MAIN TRENDS IN PHONEME THEORY

The Psychological View
It regards the phoneme as an ideal mental image that the speaker bears in mind when pronouncing allophonic variants.
The speech realization of a target phoneme deviates from the ideal because of its peculiarities of the speaker`s articulating organs and the influence of neighbouring sounds.
The Abstract View
It regards phonemes as units which are independent of speech sounds.
The acoustic and physiological properties are associated with merely abstract phonemes. It is stated that there exist
accuphonemes
representing types of units completely independent of any phonetic properties which are higher than the phoneme
The Physical View
It regards that phoneme asa a family of related sounds that have phonetic similarity and do not occur in the same phonetic context.

MAIN TRENDS IN PHONEME THEORY
There are several schools of phonology which express different use of the nature of phoneme.
The Functional View
It doesn`t take into consideration the actually pronounced speech sound and regards the phoneme as the minimal sound unit by which meanings can be differentiated.
According to it only distinctive features of the phoneme make sense while non-distinctive ones should be extracted.
The
Phoneme
is a basic linguistic unit and this fact is acknowledged by all linguists but not all of them describe it in the same way.
This view was originated by the founder of the phoneme theory, the Russian linguist of Polish origin I.A. Baudauin de Courtenay and it was shared by E.D. Sapir, Alf. Sommerfelt, M. Tatham.

But the American linguists L. Bloomfield and D. Jones rejected this view on the basis that it`s impossible to establish ideal sounds which don`t exist in reality.
This view is shared by the linguists of Prague linguistic circle, N.S.Trubetskoy, R.D.Jakobson, L.Bloomfield, M.Halle etc.
The approach was originated by the Swiss linguists F.de Saussure and advocated by the Danish Linguist E. Hjelmslev and his followers in Copenhagen linguistic circle H.J. Uldall and K. Togby.
This conception was proposed by Pr. Johns and shared by Pr.Bloch and Pr. Trager.
The lack of this approach is that it studies the phoneme from the point of view of its articulatory characteristics only without any regard to its functional aspect
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