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Copy of How Graphic Organizers Improve Student Learning

EDU 708 Research Project

Tiffany Helsley

on 17 June 2013

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Transcript of Copy of How Graphic Organizers Improve Student Learning

EDU 708
Research Project
June 2013

The Dual Coding Theory has identified
3 types of processing:
Dual-Coding Theory
Dual-Coding Theory
, sometimes known as the theory of mental imaging, is a general theory of cognition and mind.
The direct activation of verbal or non-verbal representations.
Research has shown that student learning can improve with the use of graphic organizers.
Gina Dunn
Tiffany Helsley
Heidi Melcher

The theory assumes that cognition involves the coordinated activity of two independent, but connected systems:
A nonverbal system and a verbal system that is specialized to deal with language.
Both systems rely on different areas of the brain.
Nonverbal, visual images are processed more efficiently and are approximately twice as memorable.
Verbal and nonverbal systems are additive, so one can improve memory by using both types of information during learning.
The activation of the verbal system by the non-verbal system or vice-versa.
Associative Processing:
The activation of representations within the same verbal or non-verbal system.
A given task may require any or all three kinds of processing.
How do the Dual Coding Theory and Graphic Organizers relate to each other?
The theoretical foundations of the Dual Coding Theory have definite implications on the value and use of Graphic Organizers. Marzano, Pickering and Pollock (2001) state that graphic organizers "enhance the development of non-linguistic representations in students and therefore, enhance the development of that content" (pg. 73).
As a visual tool,
graphic organizers
help students process and remember content by facilitating the development of images.
Graphic Organizers
How Graphic Organizers
(Dual Processing)
Improve Student Learning

Visual representations of a text or a topic.
Provide templates or frames for students or teachers to identify pertinent facts.
Organize information.
Record relationships between facts and ideas within a learning task.
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2001) emphasizes the concern for the educational accountability of schools in the achievement of student success.
Research proves that graphic organizers are an example of a proven learning strategy.
Research also supports the utilization of graphic organizers as a contributing factor in improving performance in classroom and achievement test scores if they are used effectively and become a fundamental part of classroom instructions.
The focus centers on the relationship of information as opposed to memorization of isolated facts.
Graphic Organizers Aid Comprehension
for Several Reasons
They match the mind. The mind arranges and stores information in an orderly fashion.
They demonstrate how concepts are linked to prior knowledge to aid comprehension.
Graphic organizers aid the memory as opposed to recalling key points from an extended text.
Graphic organizers help retain information readily when higher thought processes are involved.
Graphic organizers engage the learner with a combination of the spoken word with printed text and diagrams.
Graphic organizers combine the printed word and the spoken word making learning active.
Learning disabled students lack skills for processing and organizing written and oral information (Bos & Vaughn, 1994; Lenz, Alley, & Schumaker, 1987). These students experience difficulties with making inferences, understanding relationships and connections, distinguishing main ideas from insignificant details, and understanding the gist of a passage or lecture (Kameenui & Simmons, 1990).
How do Graphic Organizers Aid Diverse Learners?
Types of Graphic Organizers
Graphic Organizers are visual and spatial displays that make relationships between related facts and concepts more apparent (Gajria et al., 2007; Hughes et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2004).
Semantic Graphic Organizers
Creates relationships between concepts.
Types of Graphic Organizers
Cognitive Graphic Organizers
Connects ideas using lines, arrows, and spatial arrangements.
Types of Graphic Organizers
Story Mapping Graphic Organizer
Helps with understanding different elements of a story.
Types of Graphic Organizers
Framed Graphic Organizer
Identifies main ideas and important facts.
Types of Graphic Organizers
Venn Diagrams
Shows similarities and differences between concepts.
Graphic organizers help students with learning disabilities through memory, attention, processing rate, and sequencing.
How to use Graphic Organizers
in the Classroom:
Brainstorming Ideas
Making Connections
Recall Information
Summarize Ideas
Main Idea Behind Using Graphic Organizers
Bridging the Gap
Existing Awareness
New Found Knowledge
Bos, C.S., & Vaughn, S. (2002). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Deshler, D.D., Ellis, E., & Lenz, B.K. (1996). Teaching adolescents with learning disabilities: Strategies and methods. Denver, CO: Love.

Gajria, M., Jitendra, A. K., Sood, S., & Sacks, G. (2007). Improving comprehension of expository text in students with LD: A research synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 210-225.

Hughes, C.A., Maccini, P., & Gagnon, J.C. (2003). Interventions that positively impact the performance of students with learning disabilities in secondary general education classes. Learning Disabilities, 12, 101-111.

Kame'enui, E.J., & Simmons, D.C., (1990). Designing instructional strategies: The prevention of academic learning problems. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company.

Kim, A., Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., & Wei, S. (2004). Graphic organizers and their effects on the reading comprehension of students with LD: A synthesis of research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37, 105-118.

Lenz, B. K., Adams, G. I., Bulgren, J.A., Pouliot, N., & Laraux, M. (2007). Effects of curriculum maps and guiding questions on the test performance of adolescents with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30, 235-244.

Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J., and Pollock, J.E., Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representation: A dual coding approach. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
How does everything relate?
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