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THE RISE OF EUROPE
Transcript of THE RISE OF EUROPE
Rise of the Germanic Kingdom
Age of Charlemagne
Europe after Charlemagne
THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES Feudalism Develops
World of Knights and Nobles
Manors Support Feudalism
THE MANOR ECONOMY Church dominates medieval life
Monasteries and Convents
Church Power Grows
Corruption and Reform
Jews in Medieval Europe THE MEDIEVAL
CHURCH Agricultural Revolution
Revival of Trade and Travel
A Commercial Revolution
Revival of Trade and Travel
Rise of the Middle Class
Town and City Life Economic Recovery
Sparks Change 500-1000
PERIOD OF DECLINE
cut off from advanced civilizations
Classical learning stops
this period known as THE DARK AGES
Culturally different from Romans
Governed by unwritten customs and elected kings.
400-700 Germanic tribes carved Western Europe into small kingdoms
Franks (this kingdom would become France)
Pope became ally
Religion of Islam began building a huge empire
King of the Franks
also known as "Charles the Great"
Grandson of Charles Martel (Frank warrior)
Crowned by the pope as the successor to the Roman Empire
this deepened the split between the eastern and western Christian worlds
Charlemagne tried to unify east and west to create a united Christian Europe
tried to revive learning
Charlemagne dies in 828
Muslim forces remain a threat
The Magyars overrun eastern Europe
Vikings were raiders from Scandinavia
opened trade routes linking northern Europe to the Mediterranean
Invading Vikings, Magyars and Muslims weakened royal power
Feudalism evolved as means of protection for homes and families
Lords and vassals
lords (such as dukes or counts)
Warfare a way of life for knights and nobles
fortified homes evolved into castles for defense
women managed the household/estate
chivalry = fairness, good treatment (applied to nobles, not commoners)
troubadours = wandering musicians who sang of brave knights Heart of feudal economy was the manor
peasants living on a manor were serfs, who were bound to the land.
peasant life was harsh
in return for labor, peasants were given land to farm, and their lord's protection
manor was largely self sufficient
By the late Middle Ages, Western Europe had become a Christian nation.
Christian faith was an important part of everyday life.
Priests were guides, teachers, assisted the poor and needy and some ran schools
Church was a social center, and usually the largest public building in the village
Bishops managed larger churches called Cathedrals
women were viewed as weak and easily led into sin, therefore needing the guidance of men.
Benedict organized first monasteries and created rules to regulate monastic life.
Benedictine Rule began being used across Europe
Under Benedictine Rule, there were three vows:
Obedience to the leader of the monastery or convent
chastity or purity
because of poor health care, monks and nuns thypically cared for sick and poor.
libraries contained Greek and Roman works which kept learning alive.
Pope the spiritual leader of the Western Christian Church
Pope declared he had power over all rulers
Church had absolute power in religious matters
Church developed its own body of law, called "canon law"
disobedience could result in excommunication
Church tried to use its authority to end warfare among nobles
As wealth in the church grew, discipline weakened
Albert Berno began to revive Benedictine Rule
Friars were traveling monks who preached to the poor.
Jews flourished in present-day Spain
Northern European rulers valued and protected Jews, but taxed them heavily
late 1000's prejudice increased
christians were suspicious of a culture they did not understand
Jews were forbid to own land or practice most occupations.
Jews responded to persecution by migrating to Eastern Europe where their skills and knowledge were welcomed.