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Living Environment Regents Review

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Jennifer Sweet

on 14 June 2017

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Transcript of Living Environment Regents Review

Selective breeding produces animals and plants with desired traits (disease resistance, larger fruit, more meat or milk, specific colors).

DNA is made of 4 bases:
Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine
A three letter codon represents a specific amino acid.
These amino acids are assembled into proteins.

Global Warming
Loss of Ozone Layer
Acid Rain
Loss of Diversity / Endangered Animals

development
industrialization
pollution
farming
over hunting
overgrazing
clear cutting
introduction of foreign species
soil erosion

Human Negative Action
Increasing Human Population

Ecological Succession

Competition between species usually results in only one species occupying a niche at any one time.
Often, organisms with similar needs will divide resources to reduce competition (ex: birds eat insects during the day, bats eat them at night).

Competition

Energy is needed to keep an ecosystem going.
The energy comes from the sun and is made usable by producers (plants and other autotrophs)

Energy
Evolution is usually driven by a change in the environment.
Organisms that are better adapted to their environment and able to reproduce successfully are considered “fit”.

Unfit organisms die, and their traits are eventually removed from the gene pool.

Fitness
Modern species evolved from earlier, different species and share a common ancestor.
The gene to make human insulin was inserted into bacteria. These bacteria can now make insulin that is exactly the same as human insulin. This insulin is used by diabetics. This is safer than the cow and sheep insulin that were used in the past.

Example
Changes to DNA are called
mutations.

They can only be passed on if they occur in reproductive cells (sperm or egg).
1.Sexual reproduction
2.One cell divides twice to make four DIFFERENT cells
3.All 4 cells are haploid (n) meaning they have half the number of chromosomes found in the parent
4.Makes gametes (sex cells). In humans 4 sperm cells or 1 egg and three polar bodies are produced each time meiosis occurs.
5.Separates pairs of homologous chromosomes so that offspring get one chromosome of each pair from a different parent.

Hormone levels are controlled by negative feedback.
The nervous system regulates your body along with the endocrine system.
Know the three parts of the brain and what they do (cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla).
The spinal cord controls reflexes and brings impulses from the nerves to the brain.
Nervous System
Food is broken down so that it is small enough to enter the body tissues/cells.
The digestive system is a one way passage through the body that includes the mouth, stomach and intestines.
Food is moved through the digestive system by muscular contractions (peristalsis).
Food is broken down mechanically and chemically.
Undigested food is eliminated as solid waste.
This is not excretion.
Digestive System
Organization

A species is able to successfully reproduce amongst its members!
KINGDOMS:
Fungi
Protists
Plants
Animals
Bacteria
Protein Types:
Receptor Molecules
Antibodies
Hormones
ENZYMES!!!!
Store energy
Fats, oils, waxes
Fatty acids & Glycerol

Common Elements in Living Things:
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Phosphorous
Chemistry
Stimulus
a change in the environment that you respond to
Neuron

nerve cell.
Impulse

electrical signal carried by the nerves.
Neurotransmitters
are chemicals that help carry the impulse.
Hormone

chemical signal (protein) secreted by different glands in the body.

Regulation
Diffusion:
movement of molecules from high concentrations to low concentrations
Requires no energy (passive transport)
In a cell, it crosses the semi-permeable membrane
Glucose IS small enough to cross membrane alone
Occurs until equilibrium is reached

Active Transport:
requires the use of energy (ATP)
usually moving molecules from a low to a high concentration
Organisms get energy by breaking the bonds of sugar molecules.

The released energy is used to make a molecule of ATP, which gives all organisms their energy.
Respiration
Observation
What is seen or measured
Inference
A conclusion based on observation or evidence
Hypothesis
An untested prediction, states both cause and effect
Theory
Broad explanation of natural events supported by strong evidence
1.Recycling wastes
2.Conserving available resources
3. Using cleaner resources (ex: solar over fossil fuels)
4.protection of habitats and endangered species
5.use of biological controls instead of pesticides and herbicides
6.Farming native plants (ex: cocoa in the rainforest)
7.Planting trees to replace those cut down.
8.Rotating crops or planting cover crops to reduce soil loss.

Human Positive Action
Biodiversity refers to the variety of life on earth.
As habitats are lost and species become extinct, biodiversity is reduced.
This is bad because ...
1) ecosystems with low diversity take longer to recover from environmental changes
2) we use organisms for many things such as food and medicine; by reducing biodiversity we are losing potentially valuable resources.

Air
Water
Light
Temperature
pH
Food
Predators
….all determine which organism can live in an ecosystem and how large the population can get

Environmental Factors
species, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere

Fossil record
Radioactive dating
Genetic
Biochemistry
Anatomy
Embryology

Natural selection is the mechanism that causes species to change.

The basic steps in natural selection are:
Overproduction of offspring.
Competition for limited resources.
Survival and reproduction OR death.


Charles Darwin
Genetic engineering or gene splicing inserts genes of one organism into the genes of another.
Restriction Enzymes are used to cut and copy the DNA segments.
Bacteria are often used they have no nucleus protecting their DNA and they reproduce very quickly!

Genetic Engineering
Nutrients from the digestive system are transported to cells by the circulatory system.

Wastes from respiration are removed by the excretory system.

The nervous and endocrine systems work together to control the body.

Regulates body along with nervous system. Slower but with longer lasting effects.
The pancreas makes insulin and glucagon which control blood sugar.
Adrenal glands make adrenaline when the body is under stress.
Testosterone (male), estrogen and progesterone (female) are the sex hormones.
The job of the immune system is to protect the body against pathogens.
Types of pathogens include viruses, bacteria, and parasites.
White Blood Cells are the main components of the immune system.
Antigens cause an immune response
Antibodies are proteins made by white blood cells to attack antigens. Each antibody attacks a specific antigen as determined by its shape.
Be able to explain why your body’s immune system rejects organ transplants.

Immune System
Occurs because only some genes in the nucleus of a cell are “turned on” (called gene expression).

Almost every cell has a complete set of genes, but on those needed for the cells particular job are active.
Cell Specialization or
Differentiation
A scientific name is made up of an organism’s Genus and species
Made of lipids and proteins
Selectively Permeable
Only some molecules can pass in/out of it
Water, oxygen, and sugar diffuse easily
Large molecules like starch and protein need ATP

Cell Membrane
Cell Membrane
Cell Wall
Nucleus
Chloroplast
Mitochondria
Cytoplasm
Ribosome
Vacuole
Cell Organelles
Enzymes can lose shape and break down
DENATURE
High/low temperatures
High/Low pH
Biological Catalysts
Increase the rate of chemical reactions
Enzymes specifically work on substrates
Lock & Key Model
enzymes
Building Blocks: amino acids
Number, types & arrangement determine FUNCTION
FORM = FUNCTION
Make hormones, ENZYMES, & cell structures
"Building Block:" Simple sugars (glucose)
"Big:" Starches, Glyocogen, Cellulose
Supply energy!

Chemistry: Carbohydrates
Receptor molecules:
Proteins on the surface of the cell membrane that receive signals from the
nervous
and
endocrine
system.
These are needed for your cells to
communicate
and work together.
Regulation
Photosynthesis vs Cell Respiration
Nutrition & Energy
Disease & Death
Failure to maintain homeostasis…
What You Absolutely
Must Know to Pass the
Living Environment Regents

ANAEROBIC
Requires oxygen

Yields more ATP (energy) for a molecule of sugar than anaerobic respiration.
AEROBIC
Respiration
Photosynthesis is carried out by plants, algae and blue-green bacteria (autotrophs).

It takes the radiant energy of the sun and puts it in the bonds of sugar molecules.

Photosynthesis occurs mostly in the chloroplast of plant cells.
Photosynthesis
Nutrition
Excretion
Transport
Respiration
Growth
Synthesis
Regulation
Synthesis
Basic Life Functions = Metabolism
Controlled Experiment
Experimental Group
Group being tested
Control Group
“Normal” Group; does not receive treatment
Placebo
Fake treatment to control group
Independent Variable
Variable that is being tested (exposure, drug)
X axis
Dependent Variable
Variable that is measured; result
Y axis
Science of the Living Environment
Graphing
RNA
Base pairs: A-T, C-G
Carries genetic information
“Blue prints” to make the proteins

DNA
Genetics & Proteins
PLANT CELLS
ANIMALS CELLS
CELLS
Plants have stomates, small holes in their leaves that let them exchange the gasses used in photosynthesis.

Guard cells open and close the stomates.
Guard Cells
HETEROTROPHS
AUTOTROPHS
Nutrition
A state of balance in the body and in the environment.
Homeostasis
No oxygen

Lactic Acid is produced in the body during strenuous exercise

Alcohol is produced during fermentation of plant material
Transport
Monodon monoceros
1.Advantages: faster, easier
2.Disadvantage: no variety. Offspring are the same as parent.

Viruses
Bacteria
Fungus
Parasites


Pathogens

Other
Moves material (water, nutrients, hormones, wastes) through the body.

Red blood cells carry oxygen.
White blood cells fight disease.
Plasma transports everything except oxygen.
Platelets clot the blood.
A vaccine is an injection of a dead or weakened pathogen.
This causes the body to make antibodies against that pathogen
Vaccines only prevent diseases. They are not cures
Antibiotics are drugs used to stop infections by bacteria.
Antibiotics will not work against viruses.


Genetic Disorders

Environmental Toxins

Poor Nutrition

Organ Malfunction

High Risk Behavior

1.Advantage: variety
2.Disadvantage: more time, effort and risk.

While genes determine our traits, the environment can affect expression of genes.

Humans have 46 chromosomes, or 23 homologous pairs.
Chromosome pairs carry alleles for the same trait.
We all have two alleles for each gene- 1 from each parent, 1 on each member of the homologous pair.
Genetics
The fetus develops in the uterus.
Cells divide without becoming larger (cleavage).
After a few days, cells begin to differentiate – that is they start to form different types of cells (nerve, skin, bone, etc).
At this stage the embryo is very vulnerable to alcohol, drugs, etc because the important organs and systems are just starting to develop.

MEIOSIS
Asexual
One division => two identical, diploid (2n) cells.
Chromosome number in the daughter cells is the same as in the parent cell.
Large organisms use mitosis for growth and healing. Simple organisms use it to reproduce.

MITOSIS
Sexual

Asexual

Reproduction
1.Sexual reproduction

2.One cell divides twice to make four DIFFERENT cells

3.All 4 cells are haploid (n) meaning they have half the number of chromosomes found in the parent

4.Makes gametes (sex cells). In humans 4 sperm cells or 1 egg and three polar bodies are produced each time meiosis occurs.

5.Separates pairs of homologous chromosomes so that offspring get one chromosome of each pair from a different parent.

Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube.
A fertilized egg is called a zygote and has a normal number of chromosomes (2n).

Each chromosome has hundreds or thousands of genes.

Each gene codes for a particular protein (1 gene=1 protein).
Base pairs: A-U, C-G
RNA carries the genetic code to ribosomes.
The ribosomes then synthesize protein

Gel Electrophoresis
Evolution
producer & consumer
omnivore, herbivore, carnivore
decomposer
Predator & prey
Parasite & Host
habitat & niche
Pollution
Renewable resource
Environmental
Effects
Biodiversity
Science Terms:
Science of the living environment
Can be repeated by anyone and get the same results.
Have large sample size/many test subjects.
Are performed for longer periods of time.
Test only one variable.
Peer reviewed.
Does not have to agree with the hypothesis
Is objective
What makes an experiment "good"?
Characteristics of Living Things
transport
Osmosis
diffusion of water into or out of the cell.
If water diffuses into the cell = the cell swells (get larger) and may burst.
If it loses water (being put in salt water for example) = it will shrivel up.


Transport
Chemistry: Lipids
Chemistry: Proteins
Cell Theory:
Cells
All cells come from pre-existing cells
All living things are made of cells
Cells are the basic unit of structure, function & organization
classification
circulatory
respiratory
excretory
endocrine
causes of disease:
Species with more variation are better able to survive environmental changes.
Variations exist primarily as the result of sexual reproduction and mutation.
To evolve, variations must exist in a species BEFORE the environment changes. They do not get a trait just because it is needed.
evidence:
ecology
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