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Ancient China Prezi
Transcript of Ancient China Prezi
(221-206 BCE): Qin Dynasty
(206 BCE-220 CE): Han Dynasty
(220-265 CE): Three Kingdoms (Shu, Wei, and Wu)
(265-420 CE): Jin Dynasty
(581-618 CE): Sui Dynasty
(618-906 CE): Tang Dynasty
(960-1279): Song Dynasty
The innovative behavior of the Chinese
in this time led to the inventions that we use in today's everyday life such as gunpowder, paper, the compass, and print making.
Chinese Government and Structure
Figure of a horse, earthenware with
amber lead glaze from China, Eastern
Han dynasty, 25–220 ce
Intro To Ancient China
Second Century AD
Yazheng - 7 string Violin
Xiqin - form of violin
The earlist forms of gun poweder were first seen in the thrid century. However the Chinese first used gun powder in 1044 during the Song Dynasy. The Chinese used gun powder for numerous things, including fireworks and weapons, such as hand grenades, rifles and cannons. For 130 years, the Chinese were the only empire with gun poweder, until the secrets traveled along the Silk Road. With the secrets, the Europeans were able to make gun powder and explore and expand.
China was the first country to successfully make paper, which was created during the Han Dynasty, or around 202 BC to 16 AD. This kind of paper was made using tree bark, bits of rope, rags, and worn-out fishing nets with the end result being a soft, thin, and smooth textured paper. This invention created a light-weight way to store information and replaced the way of writing things on pottery, bones, and stones wrapped in bronze which was too heavy and expensive to be practical. This revolutionary invention cleared the way for other inventions such as the printing press and made way for the flow of information without verbal repetition.
The compass was invented in during the Warring States period, at approximately 200 B.C. The primitive version of the compass was built with a bronze needle and a magnet, which was called a Sinan. This form of creating compasses was used until the Song Dynasty, where a Chinese scientist named Shen Kuo described a new type of compass in his book, one called a floating compass. This device was used for maritime navigation. Because of its potential, the civilizations in the Middle East and Europe began to use this technology for their own exploits, eventually leading to vast European exploration.
Early foms of printmaking started in China during the Tang Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, they used carved blocks for printmaking. Later on, Bi Sheng of Northern Song Dynasty invented moveable type printing in 1040's. It was said that Bi would carve each individual character on sqaures of sticky, baked clay pieces. Bi's text-making procedure involved putting a large irone frame on an iron board. Afterwards, they would arrange the words within the iron frame. They worked in an efficient process; while one plate was in the process of printing, another was being composed. Early "Moveable" type printing continued to influence later forms of printing, Bi's printmaking created outcomes of wooden, copper, and lead type methods, which were all inspired by moveable clay. Chinese printmaking influenced the people of Europe, as they had joined on 400 years later.
Tang Dynasty: The Tang Dynasty prospered in arts and culture. Buddhist sculptures had curved torsos with one hip thrust to each side. The sculptures showed influence from the hellenic style of sculpture in Afghanistan. Musicians played on bells, stone chims, flutes, zithers, and drums. There was foreign, court, and common music. Painters were also important court figures. Painters painted vigorous, colorful, and optimistic pictures. Various styles, techniques, and theories prospered.
When Qin succeeded in unifying China in 221 bc, its king claimed the title of “First Sovereign Emperor,” As an energetic and ambitious leader, Shi Huangdi abolished the feudal system and enhanced his adminitration power by dividing into 36 provinces with officials directly nominated by the emperor. His construction of the Great Wall is one of the most magnificient projects in human history. However, the overwhelmingly exploit and mistreatment of people accelerated collapse of Qin dynasty.
Three Kingdoms (Shu, Wei, Wu)
Confucianism was formed in 500 BCE China by a philosopher named Confucius, dating it to be one of the oldest religions. It was created over the concern of the chaotic social and political situation in China at the time. Confucius wanted to restore and maintain certain traditional values and norms. Today, many people argue that Confucianism is not a religion rather a philosophy due to its lack of gods and beliefs in the afterlife.
In 184 A.D. two great Taoist-inspired popular rebellions began: that of the Yellow Turbans in the east and the Five Pecks of Rice band in Sichuan.
These rebellions were the main cause of the Han Dynasty
Early Rebillion of Qin
The Great Wall of China
The Yingyang: nature of change, balanced as two halves of a whole.
This is a very common symbol that came from Daoism. Yinyang is the basis of Zhouyi (Book of Changes).
The first Tang emperor, Li Yuan, known by his temple name, Gaozu, began as a contender for the rule of the Sui. He overcame various rivals and rebels, and by 621 he controlled China’s eastern plain. In 624 he added most of the rest of North and South China, although some rebels remained in the North throughout the dynasty. He emulated the first Sui emperor in establishing a highly competent bureaucracy, and he adopted the same pattern of local administration.
The Song was founded by Zhao Kuangyin, a military inspector general, who usurped control of the empire in a coup. Thereafter, he used his mastery of diplomatic maneuvering to persuade powerful potential rivals to exchange their power for honours and sinecures, and he proceeded to become an admirable emperor (known as Taizu, his temple name). He set the nation on
a course of sound administration by instituting a competent and pragmatic civil service. He followed Confucian principles, lived modestly, and took the country’s finest military units under his personal command.
As the founder of Daoism, he wrote Dao De Jing in 6th century B.C., a book that greatly contributed to the Daoist religion.
Shift from Feudalism to Centralized Goverment
The construction of the Great Wall of China was nationalized during the Qin dynasty to keep nomadic invaders out of the border towns of China
‘Zhuangzi’ is the name of the second foundational text of the Daoist philosophical and religious tradition and the name of the putative author of this text, who early historical sources say flourished between about 350 and 300 B.C.E. As one of the two most popular Daoist texts in the Chinese tradition, the Zhuangzi has been the subject of more than sixty major East Asian commentaries since the third century C.E., some of which contain philosophically significant interpretations of the text.
In 836 AD Wenzong, an emporer of the Tang dynsasty bans Buddhism. He is afraid that temples have too much money and power since more people were going to pray and give offereings and pay less attention to authority.
Sinan, used during and before the Han Dynasty
The second Tang emperor, Li Shimin, known by the temple name Taizong, succeeded to the throne in 626 by murdering two brothers and forcing the abdication of his father, but he became one of the greatest emperors China has known. He adjusted the balance of the court aristocracy to equalize regional influences and expanded both the Sui use of examinations in literature and culture for hiring civil servants and the Sui system of high-quality schools at the capital. He further enshrined the classics and published a standard edition. He defeated his eastern Turkish enemies and spread disunity among those in the west, expanding China farther westward than ever before.
Second Emperor of Tang
In the late Tang Dynasty (618-907), the regional military leaders had too much power in their hands to be effectively controlled by the central government. This led to a thoroughly new system of a parallel installment of civilian (wenguan) and military officials (wuguan) that were to mutually control each other. The terms and titles of the Song period administration are very confusing and not very easy to reconstruct. But basic lines of the governmental system - dating from the Han period(206 BCE-220 CE) - were still in work. All in all, the Song system was more autocratic than the Tang system because more power was in the hands of the emperor himself, or in those of persons acting on the emperor's behalf, like the strong Counsellors-in-chief.
A Political System Balancing Between Military and Civil Officials of Song Dynasty
Tang Dynasty Art
The Chinese proudly displayed their culture and nationality through spectacular art, ancient religion, and amazing literature.
A Teaching, Not a Religion
Buddhism played an important role in ancient China. Contrary to belief, Buddhism is not a religion but a teaching. Buddha's followers have morphed Buddha's teachings to be more religious.
Many historians accept that Buddhism was officially introduced in China in 67 CE. Around 60 AD, provinces were fighitng each other as the Han declined. One of these provinces' leader heard of Buddhism and how it enlightens the people, so he thought if he became smarter than he would win the war and therefor become the emporer of China. So he sent people to Afghanistan to invite Buddhist monks back to China. On their way back, two of these monks establish Bai Ma Si (White Horse Temple).
For the next 300 years, Buddhism was not widely known. Only higher socially ranked people practiced Buddhism as they thought only can could understand the teachings. There was also a lack of Buddhist teachings translated into Chinese.
Xuanzang (602-664) journyed to India in 629 on the Silk Road to study Buddhism in India. He brought back many Buddhist books and teachings. He also brought together scholars to translate them into Chinese. Because of this, Buddhism was very accesible and became very popular. Thaizong, Tang Emporer during this time, helped these books to circulate around China.
GREAT TANG RECORDS ON THE WESTERN REGIONS
is the most detailed account of Asia as it preserved numerous records of social and politcal aspects of many regions in Asia.
Evolution of Confucianism
After Confucius passed away, Mencius was Confucius' brightest student and he led on Confucius' teachings. But, he also changed some things. He had different opinions on how different ethical ideals might be attained and he emphasized on self-reflection. After Mencius was Hsün Tzu, who thought that the key to attaining the ideals was to first focus on the norms governing social lives and to perfect that and then everything else will follow, but his teachings did not catch on with the future generations. Confucianism evolved, and it is still changing today.
Shi Huangdi replaced the old feudalism government with a more bureaucratic government. He divided the country to 36 units called "commanderies," each with three apointed officals: Civil Governor (agriculture), Military Governor (Army), and Imperial Overseer (kept Emperor informed).
The Han Dyansty was the longest reigning dynasty out of any other. The Han Dynasty used a very similar government system as the Qin Dynasty. However, the emperors favored Confucian ideologies. The emperors also extended the empire from modern Korea and Vietnam to Uzbekistan.
With the collapse of the Han Dynasty, China broke up into three separate kingdoms: Shu, Wei, and Wu. For the next 96 years, these kingdoms battled each other to control China.
The Chinese government and structure was well developed by the Qin Dynasty, but periods of chaos and rebellion did occur.
Mr. Williams' T6 Class
In 580 CE, Emperor Wen successfully united China. During the Sui Dynasty, the Chinese finished the Grand Canal, the longest canal in the world, and expanded the Great Wall. However, due to the government's tyrannical demands, the people overthrew the regims
The Grand Canal is 1776 kilometers (1104 miles)