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Transcript of Mozambique
Civil War 1977-1992
Human Development Index Standing
Mozambique, 2010: 135
Canada, 2010: 6
Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live births)
Dependency Ratio (% of youth and elderly per 100 working-age population)
Crude Birth Rates
Mozambique: 39.08 births/1,000 people
Canada: 10.28 births/1,000 people
Crude Death Rates
Mozambique: 12.57 deaths/1,000 people
Canada: 8.2 deaths/1,000 people
Mozambique is a developing country, therefore their population pyramid is in Stage One, given the wide base of the pyramid. This shows us that the highest percentage of the population is children and infants, who are being supported by the smaller mid-section composed of the working-age citizens. The small top reflects the short life expectancy and infant mortalities that are factors of an expanding population. The wide base is a sign of women lacking protection from harassment and forced marriage, as well as the unavailability of birth control and family education. This shape indicates that Mozambique has poor medical care, hygiene techniques and resources, nutrition opportunities and education, due to the high birth rate and low life expectancy. These are all factors that contribute to a unhealthy population.
Canada's population pyramid reflects the developed state of the country, putting it in Stage Three or even Stage Four. This structure shows a declining birth rate and larger mid-section, which is the ideal structure for a successful population. The mid-section represents the working-age citizens of which the other citizens depend on. Canada's attitudes towards family sizes, which are becoming increasingly smaller, educational programs, societal attitudes and the economy have all contributed to the decline in the birth rate. With Canada's improved medical care, the death rate has also fallen, increasing the life expectancy. Canada is even leaning towards a contracting pyramid as women are being employed, costs of raising children are rising along with other factors that would cause the birth rate to fall.
Canada ranked number 11 on the United Nations Human Development Index in 2012, showing high levels of economic growth and technological development. Canada is a developed economy, with a variety of areas generating wealth, strong industries, such as agriculture, resource extraction, construction, and high consumption of consumer goods and services. Due to improved medical care, education and economic factors, Canada ranks among the highest developed countries in the world.
In contrast to Canada's developments, Mozambique ranked number 185 on the Human Development Index in 2012. This standing reflects the traditional economy of Mozambique, which relies on agricultural production and primary industries, such as farming. This agricultural dependency creates low productivity, making it difficult to provide for the large population. Mozambique's lack of available education, medical care, stable economy, and other factors contribute to its fragile state, which is reflected in its standing as one of the least developed countries in the world.
Mozambique's high rate of infant mortality is another unfortunate result of the country's poor medical care, education and environmental conditions. Mozambique's lack of available medical care causes infant deaths due to conditions such as diarrhea, infections, and vaccine-preventable diseases. Malnutrition and disease in the mothers also contributes to the high rate of infant deaths. Lack of parental education, especially in mothers, can lead to younger mothers giving birth and little knowledge of child care, compromising the infant's health. Mozambique also has high risk of Malaria, which is the leading cause of infant mortality in the country.
Canada has a very low rate of infant mortality, due to the medical care, education and environmental factors available in the country. Canadians have access to medical care and services including immunizations, nursing, health care for the parents and aided births, all of which increase an infant's chance of survival. Education in Canada also means that parents are generally more prepared for, and able to provide for their children. Women are being educated and getting careers before having children, which raises the age of mothers. This makes the mother more likely to be fit for carrying and delivering a child. Finally, Canada is not at high risk of diseases, civil unrest or environmental challenges such as drought, which would all affect infant mortality.
Mozambique's high dependency ratio is a result of the large number of young children who are dependent on the smaller number of working-aged citizens. The low life expectancy and high birth rates create an expanding population, in which the majority of the population is unable to work, and therefore depends on the small percentage of working citizens that have to provide for their families.
Canada shows a much lower dependency ratio than Mozambique, due to the structure of the population. Our largest percentage of citizens comes from working-age people, who can provide for the smaller number of children and elderly people. This balance is created by the lower birth rates and higher life expectancy of Canadians. However, Canada's population is aging due to the Baby Boom, and the dependency ratio is rising. In the next decade, many Canadians will be retired, and there will be a large number of elderly citizens who rely on the working population to provide health care and fill their jobs. Due to this decrease in workers, Canada will have to introduce more immigration to provide for the dependent citizens of Canada.
The crude birth rate in Mozambique is another example of the lack of education and health care in the country, as well as societal attitudes towards pregnancy. With little knowledge or accessibility of services such as family planning, birth control and abortion, as well as lack of education or career opportunities for women, the birth rate in Mozambique is much higher than in a developed country. Traditional attitudes towards conception and pregnancy influence the birth rate by limiting women's choices. Mozambique has one of the world's highest rates of child marriage, and there are few consequences for abusing women and girls. Unplanned pregnancies or pregnancies by harassments cannot be aborted, as abortion is illegal in Mozambique.
In Canada, the birth rate has decreased over time due to changes in societal attitudes towards family size. Improved health care has decreased the chances that families will lose children to disease or other environmental factors, so the need for large families has lessened. While it used to be normal to have five or six children, Canadians now average around two children per couple. Education has allowed women to pursue careers and futures beyond homemakers and mothers, making them more likely to have children later in life. Finally, the cost of raising children has risen, with costs of food, clothing, education, gas and extra curricular activities rising, so families are more inclined to have fewer children.
Mozambique has a high death rate which would be a result of the lack of medical care, nutrition, hygiene and the high rate of infant mortality. Mozambicans have limited access to medical care for treatment of infections, disease, injuries or other conditions. Many are also unable to attain clean water, nutritious foods and hygienic practices are not available due to lack of knowledge and availability of the tools necessary. For these reasons, the life expectancy of Mozambicans is very low compared to developed countries.
Canada's death rate reflects the available health care and health education that have contributed to the longer life expectancy of Canadians compared to many other countries. Canadians are privileged to have access to medical care from birth, as well as clean water, nutritious foods, and hygienic environments and practices.
Mozambique remains in Stage One of the Demographic Transition Model. This shows high birth and death rates, resulting in small growth of the population. High infant mortality rates due to disease and malnutrition contribute to the high death rates, while lack of education and medical services keep the birth rates high as well. Stage One is an example of a developing country.
Canada is in Stage Three of the Demographic Transition Model. This is reflected in the low death rates and declining birth rates. Medical care and education have caused the life expectancy to rise, while social programs, women's education, and social attitudes have caused family sizes to become smaller.
Unsustainable Farming Practices
Destruction of Coral Reefs
Deforestation and Mangrove Removal
Pollution and Oil Spills
Logging and Deforestation
Unsustainable farming practices, in agricultural and aquaculture, are an environmental concern in Mozambique, similar to Canada and many other countries. Inefficient use of farmland by intensively planting and replanting crops in overused soil results in desertification and poor crops. As well, unsustainable harvests of resources, such as sand oysters, will lead to diminished supplies which will cause reduced income and increased poverty.
Mozambicans depend on wood to burn for heating, energy and cooking. As well, with increased development and urbanization, trees have been removed for building and land use. This reliance on wood and the removal of trees without replacement will have severe consequences in the future. With the rising population and diminishing resources, there will not be enough trees to support the need for materials, and the loss of ground coverage can lead to desertification.
Off the coast of Mozambique, tankers carrying crude oil from the Arabian Gulf have contaminated the sea. This oil causes major environmental damage in the ocean, killing marine animals, and poses health risks to people as it washes up on the shores of Mozambique. The effects of having oil tankers off the coast are a topic of concern in Canada as well, with multiple proposals of oil transport in B.C. such as the Enbridge Pipeline. In urban Mozambique, rural sewage treatment is also inefficient, exposing people to potential diseases.
Animal poaching for the collection of valuable materials such as ivory and pelts has resulted in the endangering and extinction of many species in Mozambique. Should these practices continue, there will be many more extinctions of species, and the materials that people rely on for profit will be nonexistent. Habitat loss due to urbanization is also causing people and wildlife to live in closer proximity, which leads to conflict between humans and wild animals. This issue is more common in African and Asian countries rather than North American countries such as Canada, due to the high population density of the areas.
The urbanization of Mozambique and unsustainable development practices has lead to the destruction of coral reefs off the coast. As Mozambique develops its land and industries, the toxic pollution from industrial waste, untreated sewage, uncontrolled fishing, mining and other human activities has been detrimental to the marine environment in which the pollution evidently ends up. Coral reefs off the coast of Mozambique are consistently disappearing, due to acidification from the pollution and activities such as drilling for oil. Threatened coral reefs may disappear entirely if these practices should continue for years to come.
Climate change has affected the entire country in many different areas, and has had devastating consequences in some provinces. Some of these effects include insect infestations, forest fires, floods and drought. However, the most obvious damage is the melting ice in the North, causing habitat loss and endangering many species such as the Polar Bear. Residents in these Northern areas have also experienced more mudslides and landslides due to the melting ice, which can be extremely dangerous for the surrounding communities. While the North is most affected in Canada, global warming has affected countries all over the world, and is the catalyst for many environmental issues.
The oil sands contribute largely to the pollution and resource exploitation in Canada. Water consumption is at an unsustainable rate in the production of oil, and the home of the oil sands, Alberta, is responsible for one third of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. The sands have caused deforestation for oil exploration and materials, habitat loss to animals living in these areas, and many health concerns for people living and working around these exposed, toxic materials.
Air pollution from cars, material burning and industries create a hazardous environment for people living in affected areas, especially cities such as Toronto and Vancouver. These toxins affect people's respiratory systems and are cause for many other health concerns, even leading to cancer. Water and land pollution are impacting the environment by harming animals, destroying habitats and contributing to global warming.
Like many environmental issues in Canada, logging affects all organisms in the country. Logging causes habitat fragmentation and loss, which can lead to the endangering of forest species. Runoff and erosion can become issues without the protection of forests, causing floods and landslides in previously protected areas. Emissions from the trucks and machines used in the process of logging also contribute greatly to the Greenhouse Gas emissions in Canada, which evidently lead to global warming. Logging and deforestation in Canada is an example of how our unsustainable actions can negatively affect the rest of the world.
Overfishing is another example of resource exploitation in Canada with many consequences. This practice causes destruction of ecosystems, and threatens many more by removing vital components of the ecosystems' food chains without replacing them. This forces certain marine animals to find food elsewhere, which in turn affects other ecosystems in a destructive cycle that can eventually lead to the extinction of species. Overfishing affects biodiversity of marine animals as well, making them more susceptible to extinction. Finally, the disappearance of desired fish species can have tremendous economic impacts for the people that rely on them for income, an example being the collapse of the Atlantic Northwest Cod Fishery in 1992.
Many species of animals in Canada are threatened by the practices and activities of the developing population and unsustainable habits. Some of these species have become endangered, meaning their numbers have dropped dangerously low and they are at risk of extinction, such as the Vancouver Island Marmot. The greatest threat to endangered species is habitat loss by land development, pollution, mining and other destructive activities. Other factors include over-exploitation of species for resources and materials, and the introduction of foreign species that take over indigenous species' habitats and food sources. In order to protect these endangered species, Canadians will have to alter their habits and extreme development practices, or else many animals may be lost forever.
Mozambique is a country in Southeast Africa that is rich with natural resources. This developing country has created an agricultural economy based on these resources. The country had been colonized by Portugal from 1505 until 1975 when it gained independence at the end of a decade long independence war. However, only two years after independence the country descended into a long and violent civil war from 1977 to 1992 between the Marxist FRELIMO and anti-communist RENAMO.
The Mozambique Civil War had many detrimental affects on the country which have hindered its development for years. The war caused the economy to collapse with wartime expense, debts, lack of beneficial investment and damages. The infrastructure of the country was destroyed, and there were mass human rights violations. The government cut back on medical care funding, which contributed to the widespread famine and disease that crippled the population. Acts of terror were used by both sides, with the government murdering many citizens and sending many more to 're-education camps' similar to Nazi-German concentration camps. RENAMO contributed violently by targeting citizens.
Mozambique: 32 people/ sq. kilometer
Canada: 3.75 people/ sq. kilometer
Mozambique has experienced an increase in the frequency of cyclones, believed to be a result of climate change. Cyclones cause severe damage to the infrastructure, farm land and communities of Mozambique, and put citizens in danger with each storm. While the country is attempting to rebuild itself after years of war, the cyclones delay positive development.
Drought is a recurring environmental issue in Mozambique due to deforestation. The severity of a drought can be closely linked with the level of deforestation. When trees and vegetation are removed from the land, wind can reduce the amount of topsoil, making the land more vulnerable. As well, the lack of shade from trees can cause further drying of the land. Droughts can make it impossible for people in Mozambique to farm, restricting their ability to provide food and water for their communities and livestock, affecting their income and health.
In Mozambique, the high population density can contribute to their hardships, as a higher density puts more pressure on the land. With farming as their primary source of income and food supply, Mozambicans rely heavily on the land to support them. With an expanding population to feed, and decreasing amounts of fertile land due to drought and overuse, the land will not be able to provide for the needs of all the citizens. Sustainable agriculture and aquaculture will be important factors in the development of Mozambique.
While Canada has an extremely low population density in comparison to Mozambique, climate and available farm land restrict most crop production to the southern parts of Canada. The majority of Canadian crop farming is in the south, as there are vast areas of land that remain forested and unavailable for crop production in the north. However, these areas are ideal for cattle ranching. In addition, Canada has resource industries such as logging, mining, oil extraction and commercial fishing that support the nation. As Canada is such a large country, there are many food options for providing our stable population with food and income. Unlike Mozambique, our population is not large enough to cover the surface of the country, and the population is not growing, therefore our available land is not in such high demand.