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Introduction to TESOL and its history
Transcript of Introduction to TESOL and its history
and its history 'Unpacking' a few terms A 'hi' note CLT References What now? "[A] broad approach that has become a term for methods and curricula that embrace both the goals and the processes of classroom learning, for teaching practice that views competence in terms of social interaction and looks to further language acquisition research to account for its development. (Savignon, 1991: p. 263) Holliday's (1994) appropriate methodology:
a modiﬁed CLT that is sensitive to different sociocultural demands Holliday, A. (1994). Appropriate methodology and social context. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). TESOL methods: changing tracks, challenging trends. TESOL Quarterly 40, 59–81.
Pennycook, A. (1989). The concept of method, interested knowledge, and the politics of language. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 589–618.
Prabhu, N. S. (1990). There is no best method—why? TESOL Quarterly, 24, 161–176
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. (1990). Approaches and methods in language teaching (1st ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. introductions approach - method - technique Evolution of ideas, methods and their philosophical underpinnings: grammar translation, direct method
audiolingualism, community language learning, suggestopaedia, silent way, the crisis of method and 'post-method' Revised by Richards & Rogers (1990):
approach - design - procedure Austin's (1962) speech act theory Halliday's 1973 functional perspective Hymes' (1972) theory of communicative competence each approach was a principled response to the perceived failure of the previous one Prabhu's (1987) context-speciﬁc, task-based language pedagogy "post-method"
"the crisis of method" (Kumaravadivelu, 2006;
Pennycook, 1989) :-) What is TESOL? LNG 3114
Module Tutor: Ibrar Bhatt
email@example.com Pragmatic eclecticism does not just mean that
“anything goes“. On the contrary, students have a right to expect that they are being asked to do things for a reason, and that their teacher has some aim in mind which he or she can, if asked, articulate clearly. Teaching plans should always be designed to meet an aim or aims.
A lexical approach would steer us towards the teaching of phrases which show words in combination. Thus, instead of teaching will for the future, we might instead have students focus on its use in a series of archetypical utterances such as I'll give you a ring.
One of the ways the students’
mental capacities are stimulated is through integration of the fine arts. Stands for Authentic use, Restricted use and Clarification and focus
Communicative activity will demonstrate authentic use; elicited dialogue or guided writing will provoke restricted use of language by students; finally clarification language is that which the teacher and students use to explain grammar, give examples, analyse errors, elicit or repeat things. In response to these criticism many people have offered variations on PPP and alternatives to it: Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.
Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists.
Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided.
Reading of difficult text is begun early in the course of study.
Little attention is paid to the content of text,which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. At one time it was called Classical Method,since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek.
Earlier in this century,it was used for the purpose of helping students read and appreciate foreign language literature. Technique : a common technique when using video material is called “silent viewing”. This is where the teacher plays the video with no sound. Silent viewing is a single activity rather than a sequence, and as such is a technique rather than a whole procedure.
A term that is also used in discussions about teaching is “model” – used to describe typical procedures, usually for teachers in training. Such models offer abstractions of these procedures, designed to guide teaching practice. Coursework 2 (30% weighting): You will need to plan a lesson for a particular group of ESOL students using the exercise provided. This will assess LOs 2 and.
3.The deadline date for this part of the assessment is Friday 22nd February 2013. Any assignment handed in late without prior arrangement will result in a ‘0’ mark. You can, of course, submit your work prior to this date
CW 2 marks will be available in the week beginning 11th Mar 2013 Coursework 1 (70% weighting): Produce a 2000-word essay in response to one of the following questions. This will assess LO1.Your essay should be word-processed or typed and should contain a full reference list of all books and articles referred to and quoted from.
The deadline date for this essay is Friday, 25th January 2013 at 3.30pm. Any assignment handed in late without prior arrangement will result in a ‘0’ mark. You can, of course, submit your work prior to this date.
CW 1 marks will be available in the week beginning 11th Feb 2013. There are two parts to the assessment of this module:
1. An essay of 2000 words. Titles can be found on pages 3 and 4. This is worth 70% of the overall mark. This tests learning outcome 1.
2. A lesson plan. This is worth 30% of the overall mark. This tests learning outcomes 2 and 3. The module is delivered by a combination of tutor-led presentations and seminars. Each weekly lesson will have a tutor-led presentation and a follow-up seminar session. The tutor-led presentations will introduce you to major concepts and research. Seminars are student-centred and practical in orientation. They will allow you to discuss and/or try out and evaluate issues and ideas raised in the presentations. ...our attitudes to the language, and to the way it is taught, reflect cultural biases and beliefs about how we should communicate and how we should educate each other.
Many of the approaches and teaching methods are based on a very ‘western’ idea of what constitutes “good learning“. For example, American teachers working in other countries sometimes complain that their students have nothing to say when in fact it is not an issue of the student's intelligence, knowledge, or creativity which makes them reluctant to communicate, but their educational culture. Teachers need to understand student wants and expectations just as much as they are determined to push their own methodological beliefs. Total Physical Response Children learn language from their speech through the forms of commands, then adults will learn best in that way too.
In responding to commands students get a lot of comprehensible input, and in performing physical actions they seem to echo the claims of Neuro-linguistic programming that certain people benefit greatly from kinaesthetic activity. Georgi Lozanov
physical surroundings and atmosphere of the classroom are of a vital importance;
the reason for our inefficiency is that we set up psychological barriers to learning: we fear that we will be unable to perform, that we will be limited in our ability to learn, that we will fail;
one result is that we do not use the full mental powers that we have and according to Lozanov, we may be using only 5 – 10% of our mental capacity
In order to make better use of our reserved capacity, the limitations we think we have need to be ‘desuggested’
parent-children (teacher-student) relationship
three main parts: oral review, presentation and discussion, concert session (listening to classic music) These methods developed in the 1970s and 1980s as humanistic approaches to remove psychological barriers to learning.
1. Community Language Learning
- students sitting in a circle
- a counsellor or a knower
- making the utterance
Three basic stages of TBL according to Jane Willis (1996):
1. Pre task (introduction to topic and task)
2. Task cycle (task, planning and report)
3. Language focus (analysis, practice). Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the name which was given to a set of beliefs which included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach but also a shift in emphasis on how to teach! Michael Lewis claims that students should be allowed to Observe (read or listen to language) which will then provoke them to Hypothesise about how the language works before going on to the Experiment on the basis of that hypothesis. A variation on Audio-lingualism in British-based teaching and elsewhere is the procedure most often referred to as PPP, which stands for Presentation, Practice, and Production.
In this procedure the teacher introduces a situation which contextualises the language to be taught. The students now practice the language using accurate reproduction techniques such as choral repetition, individual repetition, and cue-response drills The 'audio-lingual' methodology owes its existence to the Behaviourist models of learning using the Stimulus-Response-Reinforcement model, it attempted, through a continuous process of such positive reinforcement, to engender good habits in language learners.
Audio-lingualism relied heavily on drills like substitution to form these habits.
Habit-forming drills have remained popular among teachers and students, and teachers who feel confident with the linguistic restriction of such procedures Approach : this refers to “theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching”. It offers a model of language competence. An approach describes how people acquire their knowledge of the language and makes statements about conditions which will promote successful language learning.
Method : a method is the practical realization of an approach. Methods include various procedures and techniques as part of their standard fare.
Procedure : a procedure is an ordered sequence of techniques. A procedure is a sequence which can be described in terms such as first you do this, then you do that… Smaller than a method and bigger than technique. the place of English: as a lingua franca
the number of English speakers: 600-700 million speak English; in Asia alone, 100 million children are learning English.
How English got there: a colonial history, economics (globalization), travel, information exchange (academic discourse; the Internet), popular culture (music, movies)
Varieties of English: inner circle, outer circle, and expanding circle; for specific or general purposes
Discuss your experiences in small groups. Share your thoughts with the rest of the class. On completion of the module you will be able to:
describe and critically evaluate one of a number of issues in the field of TESOL
design ESOL lessons for various levels and skills
recognise and appreciate the roles played in TESOL by both the learner and teacher In this course you will be introduced to the principles and practice of good English language teaching. We will be discussing issues such as the history of language teaching and learning, individual learner differences, grammatical terminology, materials development, and how to plan ESOL lessons and programmes. When in class, teach the students, not the method. Discuss. Humanistic teaching has found a greater acceptance at the level of procedures and activities, in which students are encouraged to make use of their own lives and feelings in the classroom.
Such exercises have a long history and owe much to a work from 1970s called Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Classroom by Gertrude Moscowitz in which many activities are designed to make students feel good and remember happy times while, at the same time, they practise grammar items.
When I was a child my favourite food was hamburger, or When I was a child my favourite relative was my uncle. I was shown how to crawl. I pushed out of my mother’s womb. - pointing to a phonemic chart 2. The Silent Way
- the teacher says as little
- interacting with physical
objects, especially with
Cuisenaire rods A desire to communicate
A communicative purpose
Content not form
Variety of language
No teacher intervention
No materials control No communicative desire
No communicative purpose
Form not content
One language item only
Materials control Non-communicative activities Techniques BAROQUE MUSIC – it has a specific rhythm and a pattern of 60 beats per minute, and Lozanov believed it created a level of relaxed concentration that facilitated the intake and retention of huge quantities of material. The course Module Assessment Learning outcomes CW1 (essay) CW2 (lesson plan) Traditional methods
Communicative approaches ARC OHE ESA Engage, Study, Activate Communicative Approaches (1) CLT (2) Communicative activities Task-based learning Four methods (1) Four methods (2) Four methods (3)
Suggestopaedia Four methods (4)
TPR "The problem is that students, and especially students in developing countries, who have received several years of formal English education, frequently remain deficient in the ability to actually use the language, in normal communication, whether in the spoken or the written mode"
(Widdowson, as in Brumfit & Johnson 1979: 117) Discuss some
that... EAP ESP ESOL L2/L1 CLT EFL What sort of teacher are you? traditional? progressive? leading? devolving?
didactic? interactive? authoritarian? nurturing? Audio-lingualism Grammar Translation Grammar translation P P P Alternatives to P P P ARC, OHE/III, ESA