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Transcript of The Renaissance
Origins of the Renaissance
Florence, Italy c. 1350 AD
Spread to the rest of Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Began at the time of the Bubonic Plague
Emerged from late middle ages.
Italians became interested in humanism, rather than religion which was the primary focus before the renaissance took shape.
They recognized these themes in Greek and Roman Cultures, from which they drew most of their influence.
Things to keep in mind
Renaissance is also about political, social, and economic changes.
Separation of church and state.
Wealthy families such as the Medici would fund the arts and arrange commissions.
Art was extremely valued and came to represent power and wealth in certain homes.
Guilds were formed by craftsmen to promote their common interests and works of art to the public.
Saw human body as the work of art and came to depict a lot of nudes and half-nudes.
Church disapproved of the movement highly.
The 4 "Renaissance Men"
Or the TMNT?
Leonardo Da Vinci
Possibly the Greatest sculptor the world has seen yet.
Put Emphasis on the Body.
Carefully studied human anatomy from a scratch and was able to create highly realistic depictions of the human body.
His works explored Roman and biblical themes.
Founded the proportions of the body many artists use today.
His style overshadowed that of the classical period.
Was commissioned by Popes to paint the ceiling of the Sistine chapel.
The Renaissance (1400-1600)
"Rebirth" in French.
The revival of classical culture abandoned in the middle ages .
Cultural development of Europe after the end of the "Dark Ages"
Flourishing of arts and sciences.
Political changes made life better than during the middle ages.
Art began to incorporate classical elements such as detail and proportion.
Great works of science and technologies began to emerge in Europe.
David by Michelangelo
Modern view of Florence, Italy
Giotto's Altarpiece (1310) is one of the earliest works of the Renaissance
Cosimo I De Medici by Bronzino
The Last Supper
Joined the Painters' guild in Florence
Genius in both science and arts.
Sketched his studies of human anatomy and biology.
His works deal with biblical themes but also portraitures which the public finds controversial
The Vitruvian Man
Lady with an Ermine
Linear Perspective (making 2D look 3D since 1400s)
The concept of Vanishing point.
This technique was discovered by the architect Brunelleschi and has been used ever since.
Attention to detail and proportion.
Style was more involved in discovering how things work in real life.
(i.e shading, light, linear proportions, relative size), basically just detail, more detail, and even more detail.
Color was used with more playfulness.
DOMES were in frequent use !!!
Raphael or Raffaello (1483-1520)
Donatello or Donato (1386-1466)
Renaissance influence outside Italy.
Centered in Flanders and England.
Slightly differs from Italian Renaissance, but shares essentials.
Less concerned with human anatomy/proportion and more with portraiture.
NO attention to linear perspective!!!
Notable artists: Jan Van Eyck and Robert Campin.
Exquisitely detailed portraiture.
by Jan Van Eyck
"A woman" By Robert Campin
Authors in The Renaissance
Why is Renaissance so Important?
It completely changed European way of thought.
Achievements and innovations in a way led to European "dominance of the world".
Paved a way for more cultural and artistic achievements.
Influenced cultures all over the world as techniques became more popular and widely used.
Many techniques artists still use today and have used throughout history post-Renaissance.
Authors of the time period created works that explored human nature in depth and philosophical manners.
Sonnets come around, popularized by Shakespeare.
Authors explored human emotions, meaning of life, and other such humanist idea which have been barely discussed before.
His famous dramas such as
Romeo and Juliet
directly dealt with the question of what it means to be human and discovery of human emotions.
Outlined individuality and character.
Other Notable Artists
Painted Classical themes (i.e gods)
Portrait Artist of High Renaissance.
Commissioned by Medici.
Painted Portraits for those who commissioned him, and explored Roman religious themes in his artwork.
Created innovations in physics and planned out some technologies we use today.
Biblical Christian themes
Hung out with Michelangelo and Leonardo
He wasn't as "genius", but his paintings illustrated a strong sense of classical tradition and ideology.
Used colors in a more vibrant manner.
Painted the human figure with as much attention to shadow detail and proportion, and was known for depicting nearly perfect figures.
Though not as amazing as Michelangelo, he was a pioneer in his craft.
Was one of the first sculptors of the modern era to create very life-like and emotional sculptures.
Worked with metals and marble.
Studied classical art and drew influence from Rome.
Highly detailed fabric folds, skin folds etc.
Most influential artist of the 15th century, and paved the way for the likes of Michelangelo.
Women During Renaissance
Renaissance gave women a voice and more rights
Women could notice the difference in their way of life which men often didn't see
Often times women acted as "muses" in that they inspired artists and their craft.
Women controlled the impact of the renaissance.
An example is
She supported the arts and collected antiquities and commissioned artists a lot, she even founded a school.
She serves an example that shows how women now had ultimately more power than before.
Isabella D'Este, The first lady of the Renaissance
(Portrait by Titian)