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Youth Health and Development

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Stephanie Mueller

on 26 April 2013

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Transcript of Youth Health and Development

Food, Nutrition & Youth Macronutrients Nutrients needed by the body in relatively large amounts and whose intake can be measured in grams required per day. Carbohydrates The main function of carbohydrates is to provide fuel for energy in its broken down form of glucose.

Youth need this energy due to the increased demands on growth and metabolism

Glucose that is not used by the body is stored as fat

Food examples are potatoes, rice, pasta, most breakfast cereals, bread and fruit (bananas) Fibre Glycaemic Index The glycaemic index ranks foods containing carbohydrates on how quickly they raise blood glucose (sugar) levels once eaten

The glycaemic index rates foods from 1 to 100

Foods that are digested quickly and cause blood glucose to increase sharply are called high GI (with a score of more than 70)

Foods that are digested and absorbed slowly having a more sustained impact on blood glucose are called low GI (with a score less than 55). Is a type of carbohydrate but is not used for energy

Slows down digestion in the small intestines and keeps digestive tract healthy and regular

Increases feelings of fullness

Lowers blood cholesterol levels

Promotes bowel health and regular bowel movements

Helps to control blood glucose levels Protein Its main function is to build, maintain and repair body cells including the cells required to build muscles, organs, bone and blood

The second function of protein is to act as a fuel for producing energy ('last resort' energy source)

Protein is made up of smaller building blocks called amino acids which form an important part of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. 20 different amino acids are needed by the body to make all the protein it needs.

Examples of food sources include meat, eggs, cheese, fish, chicken, lentils, corn and nuts Water Water has no nutritional value, however is the most important nutrient for human survival.

Water makes up around 55 to 75 per cent of body mass and is needed for numerous functions within the body, including:

all chemical reactions
as an aid to digestion and waste removal
for temperature control
as a key component of many cells, tissues and systems
as a key component of blood
for muscular contractions
for fluids that cushion the joints (synovial fluid).


How can a lack of water impact on development? Fats (Lipids) The main function of lipids is to act as a fuel for energy

Required for the development and maintenance of cell membranes

Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) need lipids to transport them around the body

Provide cushioning and protection to vital organs

Provide insulation to help maintain body temperature

Classified into 4 categories: Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fats Monounsaturated fats are considered the ‘good fats’ and include olive oil, avocado, canola oil, nuts, and peanut butter. Monounsaturated Fats Also considered to be one of the ‘good’ fats.

Classified as Omega-3 and omega-6 and have been linked to benefits including the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and improved brain function in youth

Omega-3 food sources include fish (sardines, tuna and salmon) and canola and soy oils

Omega-6 food sources include mainly nuts and seeds and oil made from corn, safflower and soy. Polyunsaturated Fats Known as ‘bad fats’ as they increase cholesterol levels in the blood and can contribute to heart disease

Examples include foods such as meat, full-cream milk, cream and cheese, most fried takeaway food, and most baked goods such as pastries and biscuits. Saturated Fats The 'ugly' fat!

Most trans fats are created when liquid oil is converted into solid fat by a process called hydrogenation.

Generally found in processed foods such as pies, pastries and cakes. Also margarines and solid spreads made for cooking Trans Fats Micro Nutrients Nutrients needed by the body in smaller amounts and whose intake can be measured in milligrams or micrograms required per day. Calcium Key nutrient required for the building of bone and other hard tissues (such as teeth and cartilage)

Youth signifies the greatest increase in bone density so important to achieve optimal peak bone mass

Reduce chance of developing osteoporosis

Food sources include dairy products, sardines and salmon, green leafy vegetables (broccoli, spinach), fortified soy milk and fortified orange juice.

Oxalic acid is in spinach and binds to the calcium molecules, preventing most of the calcium from being absorbed while vitamin D increases absorption MINERALS Iron Iron forms the ‘haem’ part of haemoglobin , which is the oxygen-carrying part of blood.

A lack of iron can result in anaemia

During youth blood volume increases therefore needing iron in greater quantities

Foods containing iron include lean red meat, turkey and chicken, eggs, nuts (including peanut butter), brown rice, wholemeal bread, especially wholemeal and leafy green vegetables such as broccoli

Vitamin C increases the absorption of iron Vitamin A Vitamin A is fat-soluble vitamin, essential for maintaining normal vision

Vitamin A plays a role in cell differentiation and cell division which is important during growth at the youth stage

Shown to promote the development of bone, and assists with the development of immune system function by promoting mucus development in the lungs and airways to prevent infection.

Vitamin A also helps in the development of antibodies required to fight infection.

Food sources include red, yellow and orange coloured fruits and vegetables including raw carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, spinach, and cantaloupe Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin (needs fat to transport it around the body)

Main role is in the absorption of calcium from the intestine into the bloodstream. Lack of Vitamin D can lead to low levels of calcium being absorbed and bones becoming weak

Food sources include fish (e.g. tuna, salmon, mackerel, sardines and herring) and fortified milk, breakfast cereals and orange juice can also contain vitamin D

Can get enough vitamin D from exposure to sunlight

Who in the population is most at risk of not getting enough vitamin D?

Why aren’t many Australians getting enough vitamin D anymore? Vitamin C Water soluble (vitamins that dissolve in water)

Vitamin C is important for the structure of tissue and is required for building collagen (forms skin, scar tissue, connective tissue , bone, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels)

Cannot be made by the body so must be consumed in food sources such as fruits and vegetables including kiwi fruit, broccoli, blackcurrants, oranges and strawberries. VITAMINS B Group Vitamins B1, B2, B3 Thiamine, Riboflavin & Niacin Essential in the process of metabolising or converting the fuels (carbohydrates, fats and protein) for energy production.

As energy is essential for growth during youth, a lack of the B-group vitamins can contribute to slowed growth and lack of energy

Food sources include vegemite, wholegrain cereals and breads, eggs, meats, fish, dark-green leafy vegetables and milk. Vitamin B6 Vitamin B6 (also called pyroxene) is required for the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein.

It plays a role in brain development which is important during times of rapid intellectual development during youth.

Also plays a role in red blood cell development

Sources include cereals, grains, legumes, green leafy vegetables, fish, meat, poultry, nuts, liver and fruit.

A lack of vitamin B6 can be associated with depression, insomnia, anaemia, irritability and confusion Folate (Vitamin B9) Plays an important role in DNA synthesis and critical in the the healthy development of the nervous system of the foetus

Assists in the development of red blood cells

Can lead to folate-deficiency anaemia, tiredness is a symptom of anaemia and can stop youth from carrying out normal daily activities affecting development

Found in green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, poultry and eggs. Many cereals, breads and fruit juices are fortified with folate.

The form of folate added to foods is a synthetic form known as folic acid. Vitamin B12 Main function during the youth stage is for the formation of red blood cells

Works with folate to ensure the red blood cells are the correct size and shape to enable oxygen to be transported throughout the body

Food sources include meat, eggs and cheese. Nutrition Games Nutrition sleuth game:
http://www.pacificsciencecenter.org/nutrition/sleuth/sleuth.html

Sleuth and Grab a grape game select – Food basics, food facts, bone building and body building Greater amount of all nutrients are needed during the youth stage due the rapid period of growth. During the adolescent growth spurt, the average female youth can expect to grow 16 centimetres in height and gain 16 kilograms in weight, and the average male youth can expect to grow 20 centimetres and put on 20 kilograms.

Growth is characterised by increase in bone length (hard tissue), muscle and organ size (soft tissue) and as a result blood volume must increase to accommodate the size of body. For all this to occur more energy is required in the form of food fuels. Nutrient Interrelationships Nutrition for Provision of Energy Nutrition for Blood Production Protein forms a major part of all three components of blood. Iron binds with protein to form haemoglobin. Haemoglobin makes up around 33 per cent of the weight of red blood cells.

Vitamin C plays a number of roles in blood formation. It helps in the absorption of iron therefore increasing haemoglobin production.

Vitamin A is essential for cell division as the body produces around two million new red blood cells per second. To keep up with the volume of red blood cells, cell division must occur rapidly.

Folate and vitamin B 12 are required for DNA synthesis (replication) and are vital for red blood cell development (immature blood cells only contain DNA).

Water is the main component of blood and is needed for the many chemical reactions that take place. Nutrition for Growth Protein is important in the formation of muscle tissue, blood, connective tissue and bones. Regulates body processes especially the formation of new tissue.

Fats essential part of cell membrane found in all body cells

Water is a structural part of cell and body fluid formation

Folate and Vitamin A is necessary for cell division and the formation of new cells

Vitamin C is involved in the formation of hormones related to growth and development

Vitamin D assists in the absorption of and use of calcium in bone growth and maintenance

Calcium builds and hardens bones and teeth Nutrition for Bone Density Development Hard tissue includes bones, teeth and cartilage

Protein is the main building material for hard tissue development and, with vitamin C (connective tissue), forms the bone matrix (house frame)

Vitamin A assists in the cell division of the new cells required for the matrix

calcium and phosphorus bind together to make calcium phosphate which is then deposited into the holes of the bone matrix to give the bone strength (plaster of the house)

Vitamin D assists in the absorption of calcium Learning Activity Create a flow chart for each of the process for growth, energy, bone density and blood production using your computers on a program such as Popplet. Food Behaviours The dietary choices that youth make can have lifelong implications and can lead to health problems later in life

The habits that youth form during this stage of their lives can influence the choices that they will make for the rest of their lives.

Four food-related behaviours that have a large impact on the dietary intake and health and development are skipping meals, consuming food from sources outside the home, consuming sports, energy and soft drinks and snacking Why do you think youth skip meals?

Which meals do youth predominantly skip? Why? Skipping Meals Youth skip meals for a number of reasons including: work and social activities, convenience, lack of motivation, dieting.

Skipping breakfast can cause fatigue, poor concentration and intellectual development could be affected.

Skipping meals may make it harder for youth to get all of the nutrients they need for growth

How can skipping meals lead to weight gain? When you skip a meal the body goes into survival mode, thinking that the next meal could be a long time off. This causes metabolism to slow down and burn less kilojoules.

Skipping meals can cause people to eat too much when they do eventually have a meal.

Having a large meal can cause the stomach to expand, which then needs a larger amount of food to feel full. This can lead to consistently eating large meals and ultimately gaining weight. Consuming food from Sources Outside the Home The influence of the peer group and a growing independence seems to be particularly relevant to eating at fast-food outlets.

Youth are more likely to choose energy dense foods that lack the nutrients required for optimal health and development.

Many young people lack the nutritional knowledge or the desire to choose healthy fast food options

The processed options are often the cheaper alternatives for young people who do not have much disposable income

In the short term these options contribute to dental decay, weight gain as well as a lack of energy. Consuming Sports, Energy & Soft Drinks How could not eating dinner from home for a year 10-11 student impact on their, physical health and development and their social health and development?

Think about what vital nutrients they may be missing out on and discuss this in your answer QUESTION Soft drinks usually contains large amounts of sugar and therefore energy so, if consumed in excess, can contribute to weight gain and other conditions such as dental caries (tooth decay).

Many energy drinks contain caffeine, which can contribute to disturbed sleep patterns and anxiety Carbohydrate Structures Carbohydrates can also be known as saccharides, or more commonly as sugars, carbohydrates are often subcategorized by their chemical structure and complexity into three different types: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides = consisting of only one chemical ring (hence 'mono'). Because there is only one ring in the molecule, monosaccharides are quickly broken down and provide and immediate and short feeling of energy.

Disaccharides = consist of 2 chemical rings. The dual rings make disaccharides slower to break down that monosaccharides

Polysaccharides = are chains of monosaccharides with more than three chemical rings. Slowest type of carbohydrates to break down. Classes of Protein Essential and Non Essential Amino Acids? (p94)

Complete Protein Foods = contain all 9 essential amino acids in the correct proportions allowing the body to make all proteins it needs. Mainly come from animal food sources: meat, poultry, dairy products, eggs, fish and soybeans (only plant food exception).

Incomplete Protein Foods = missing or lacking the required amounts of one or more of the essential amino acids. Cereals, nuts, seeds, legumes.

What are some Complementary Protein Foods and how do these work? In organic compounds needed, in small amounts, for the health and proper functioning of many body parts. Organic substances needed by the body in minute amounts to ensure the optimal health, growth and functioning of the body Vitamin D Vitamin C - also assists in the absorption of iron from the digestive tract Watch Video: http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=13788 1. Write down 3 different complete meals you could have for breakfast

2. For each write down the nutrients you get from each and what these nutrients do in the body.

3. How could not consuming these nutrients impact on youth health and development?
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