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PPWS Millet Presentation

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Cassie Hickey

on 26 April 2013

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Transcript of PPWS Millet Presentation

Domesticating a nutritional food source Foxtail Millet Overview of Millet Agricultural Problem Proposal #1 History & Origins Uses Genome Varieties Basic Information/ Varieties of Minor Millet Nutrition Origins Archeological Finds Why millet? What's Being Done? Early Contemporary Pros Cons China Ethiopia Southern India Establish a new food source
Complete control
Use other/similar research projects as baseline
Discovery of other beneficial cultivars previously not thought of Time intensive
Funding required
Requires large amount of space
Workforce needed for lab labor
FDA/EPA/USDA approval needed on final product What Are We Asking For? Japan Chemical mutagenesis Use a forward genetics project to create and screen for beneficial phenotypes that would domestciate foxtail millet into an accessible nutritional food source. Lab access to expose millet seeds to chemical mutagens
Access to farmland for growing of test crops
Stipends for workers to grow, harvest and analyze plant phenotypes
Access to genetic engineering equipment to insert selected phenotypes into new millet seeds Surrunding picture:
Seed picture: http://www.egerbil.com/sites/default/files/swf/millet/images/foxtail-millet4.jpg Not Enough ! Sixth Most Important Grain Worldwide
Well Adapted to Harsh Climates
Short Growth Season
Nutritious Food Source The problem is... Tightly bound husks, small seed size and weed control

Time consuming
Labor intensive
Lower Yield

Underutilized Orphan Crop
Limited commercial importance "Minor"Millet is a term used to describe an under utilized variety of Millet. http://www.nepal-school-projects.org/Harvesting_Millet.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Pearl_millet_after_combine_harvesting.jpg http://www.economy-ukraine.com.ua/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Harvesting-Grain.jpg http://www.lovefoodeat.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/foxtailmilletpulav_5.jpg Minor varieties are all characterized by
Short growing season
High nutritional value
Able to grow in harsh environments
Small seeds with large, firmly attached hulls Varieties can include:
Foxtail Millet
Finger Millet
Barnyard Millet
Proso Millet
Little Millet Wild Progenitor http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/huyangshu/huyangshu1103/huyangshu110300010/9041510-in-the-early-autumn-season-maturing-millet.jpg Green Foxtail Weed Foxtail Millet High in Vitamins and minerals
B vitamins Protien content changes with variety but is comparable to wheat Also high in fiber and has a low glycemic index Why should we care? Proposal #2 Inbreeding Utilize the core collection of the 1474 accessions of Foxtail millet located in the gene bank at the International Crop Research Institute for the
Semi-arid tropics. http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/loom/2010/04/02/yet-another-genome-syndrome/#.UXl35rVnHzw http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=are-there-missing-pieces Successful sequencing of Foxtail millet completed December 12, 2011.
Chosen because of:
Small genome (400 Mbp)
Self pollinator
Rich in diversity (6000 varieties) http://www.fnanaturesearch.org/images/stories/ns/marked/M/3329.jpg http://imageryoflight.wordpress.com/2010/08/17/foxtail-grass/ References 1:20 - 2:08 http://www.holoweb.com/nature/plants/Setaria_Italica.htm http://www.holoweb.com/nature/plants/images/Setaria_Italica_3.jpg Use GEBVs (Genomic Estimated Breeding Value) to select for superior lines
Analyze and identify parent material for productivity and seed size
Crosses to produce more tillers and inflouresences with loose hulls
Introduce herbicide resistance http://bijlmakers.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/foxtail_millet_150.jpg Anonymous. "Millet's Defenses Strengthened." Appropriate Technology 32 (2005): 39. Print.

Araki, Mie, Aya Numaoka, Makoto Kawase, and Kenji Fukunaka. "Origin of Waxy Common Millet. Panicum Miliaceum L. in Japan." Genetic Resource Crop Evolution 59 (2012): 1303-308. Print.

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Zhang, Gengyun, et al. "Genome Sequence of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica) Provides Insights into Grass Evolution and Biofuel Potential." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 12 Dec. 2011. Web. 19 Mar. 2013. <http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v30/n6/full/nbt.2195.html>

Abu-elgasm, Elhag H. "Nectar Forum." Website: Nectarforum. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2013. <http://www.erails.net/SD/nectarforum/nectarforum/research-and-studies/pearl-millet-pennisetum-glaucum-production-and-improvement-in-the-sudan/>

Varshney, R. K., VarshneyRibaut, J., Buckler, E. S., Tuberosa, R., Rafalske, J. A., & Langridge, P. (2012). Can genomics boost productivity of orphan crops?. Nature Biotechnology, 30, 1172-1176. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2440

Ji, Gui-su, Du, Ruiteng, Hou, Sheng-lin (2007) Genetics, Developement and Applicagion of Cytoplasmic Herbicide Resistance in Foxtail Millet. Agricultural Sciences in China, 6, 779-785.

Austin, D. (2006). Foxtail millets (Setaria: Poaceae)- Abandoned food in two hemispheres. Economic History, 60(2), 143-158.

Varshney, R. K., VarshneyRibaut, J., Buckler, E. S., Tuberosa, R., Rafalske, J. A., & Langridge, P. (2012). Can genomics boost productivity of orphan crops?. Nature Biotechnology, 30, 1172-1176. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2440

Youens, C. K., Buckler, E., Casstevens, T., & Chen, C. (n.d.). Setaris. Retrieved from http://www.gramene.org/

ScienceDaily, 29 Mar. 2013. Web. 26 Apr. 2013.
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