Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Writing Introductions & Conclusions

No description
by

Alison Wright

on 20 October 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Writing Introductions & Conclusions

A good introduction:
Consider this example:

"The role of women has changed over the centuries, and it has also differed from civilisation to civilisation. Some societies have treated women much like property, while others have allowed women to have great influence and power".

Does this introduction give you an indication of the essay question and how the essay is structured to address it?
No. This introduction is very brief and only addresses the topic in a very vague way. It does not focus on what the essay will address.
writing introductions
& conclusions

a good introduction:
Attracts the reader's attention and invites them to read on

Shows how you are going to answer the question

Shows that you understand the issues & their implications

Establishes the importance of the topic

Indicates the structure of the essay
Consider the following:
"The role of women has changed over the centuries, and it has also differed from civilisation to civilisation. Some societies have treated women much like property, while others have allowed women to have great influence and power"
Does is grab your attention, make clear the focus of the essay and how the question will be addressed?
No, it does not. This introduction is very short and vague. It gives no indication of what the specific essay question is or how will be addressed.
Consider this second version:
"The role of women in Western society has changed dramatically over the centuries, from the repression of ancient Greece to the relative freedom of women living in Medieval France. The treatment of women has also differed from civilisation to civilisation even at the same period in history. Some societies, such as Islamic ones, have treated women much like property, while others, like Ancient Egypt, have allowed women to have great influence and power. This paper will trace the development of women's rights and powers from ancient Egypt to late medieval France and explore their changing political, social and economic situation through time. All the various means women have used to assert themselves show the different ways they have fought against repression and established themselves in authority"
(Conover, no date)
Was it any better?
Yes. This version captures the reader's interest with interesting comparisons of women's roles in different societies. It then explains the aim of the essay and what the essay will be focusing on.
There is no magic formula but introductions should comprise of
3 key parts:
1. Introduce the topic (often called the topic sentence)
2. Expand or clarify the point (show you understand the question)
3. Focus of essay (show how you will address the question)
The 3 components
The introductions from 3 journal articles have been selected at random to illustrate the three key components:

1. Introduce the topic
2. Expand or clarify the point
3. Focus of the essay

2. Expand or clarify the point
The next part of the introduction often gives some context, whether it is historical, theoretical or conceptual. This focuses on the essay question and demonstrates your understanding of it.

Continuing with the previous examples:
"First shown in 2010 and now having completed its third series, it has been declared the most successful British period drama since 1981's Brideshead Revisited, with average viewing figures of around 9 million per episode, and it has also been extremely popular in America... Much has been written in recent years about this genre and the view it offers of the past through films and television programmes that display the 'marketing and consumption of British heritage as tourist attraction' (Sargent, 2000, 301)". (Byrne, 2014)

"It was a slow process blending values and behaviours from pre-Famine and Famine Ireland while concurrently adopting new patterns of thinking and acting in Industrial American Society". (Brighton, 2010)

3. focus of the essay
In your introduction you should clearly show the structure of your answer and the scope of your essay. For example, you can make clear if there are particular aspects you are going to focus on.

For example:
Next time you are doing a lot of reading for your course, pay attention to the opening paragraph of the book or article. The opening sentence of an article or book is often quite a neutral sentence designed to engage the reader in the subject. For example:
1. Introduce the topic
Putting it all together:
"From the outset, sociologists have been interested in the main causal factors of social inequality.
It is widely understood that contemporary societies are stratified according to determinants such as social class, gender, or educational level. These social stratification determinants are also found to be important predictors of someone's income level and poverty risk.

The aim of this article is to assess the importance of the life event perspective on poverty in relation to the traditional social stratification approach"
Vandecasteele, L. (2011) 'Life Course Risks or Cumulative Disadvantage? The Structuring Effect of Social Stratification Determinants and Life Course Events on Poverty Transitions in Europe' European Sociological Review, 27 (2), pp.246-263.
1. Introduce the topic
2. Expand or clarify the point
3. Focus of the essay
ITV's BAFTA and Golden Globe winning Downton Abbey was the UK television success story of recent years.
First shown in 2010 and now having completed its third series, it has been declared the most successful British period drama since 1981's Brideshead Revisited, with average viewing figures of around 9 million per episode, and it has also been extremely popular in America... Much has been written in recent years about this genre and the view it offers of the past through films and television programmes that display the 'marketing and consumption of British heritage as tourist attraction' (Sargent, 2000, 301).

Downton Abbey's success reveals that on-television heritage remains as popular, marketable and significant as ever, but I will discuss here the ways in which Downton self-conciously adapts and responds to it through a range of strategies
Byrne, K. (2014) 'Adapting Heritage: Class and Conservatism in Downton Abbey' Rethinking History, 18 (3), pp.311-327.
"Historians of Irish-America argue that 1880 marks the beginning of an identity shift from Irish immigrant to Irish American.
It was a slow process blending values and behaviours from pre-Famine and Famine Ireland while concurrently adopting new patterns of thinking and acting in Industrial American Society.

This study illustrates the material manifestation of that change by highlighting refined ceramic and glass forms recovered from two tenements associated with an Irish immigrant community at the Five Points, Manhattan"
Brighton, S. (2011) 'Middle-Class Ideologies and American Respectability: Archaeology and the Irish Immigrant Experience' International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 15, pp. 30-50.
1. Introduce the topic
2. Expand or clarify the point
3. Focus of the essay
1. Introduce the topic
2. Expand or clarify the point
3. Focus of the essay
"This study illustrates the material manifestation of that change by highlighting refined ceramic and glass forms recovered from two tenements associated with an Irish immigrant community at the Five Points, Manhattan"
"Downton Abbey's success reveals that on-television heritage remains as popular, marketable and significant as ever, but I will discuss here the ways in which Downton self-conciously adapts and responds to it through a range of strategies"
"The aim of this article is to assess the importance of the life event perspective on poverty in relation to the traditional social stratification approach" (Vandecasteele, 2011)
"Historians of Irish-America argue that 1880 marks the beginning of an identity shift from Irish immigrant to Irish American" (Brighton, 2010)
"ITV's BAFTA and Golden Globe winning Downton Abbey was the UK television success story of recent years" (Byrne, 2014)
"From the outset, sociologists have been interested in the main causal factors of social inequality" (Vandecasteele, 2011, p.246)
"It is widely understood that contemporary societies are stratified according to determinants such as social class, gender, or educational level. These social stratification determinants are also found to be important predictors of someone's income level and poverty risk"

(Vandecasteele, 2011, p.246)
Writing introductions
The 3 components are a useful guide to what you need to include in your introduction. However introductions will vary from essay to essay and do not feel you have to use the same structure. Be creative, just make sure the introduction is still serving its purpose of introducing the topic and giving the reader an idea of what the essay is about.
Introductions should be short & concise

"Focus on the forest and not the trees"
(Hoschschild, 2008)
In other words, you are aiming to introduce the topic and what the essay is going to do and not get into the detailed argument.
Your introduction should be no more that 10% of the overall word count, preferably shorter
Visit the University of Manchester's Academic Phrasebank for examples of vocabulary you can use in your introductions http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/introducing-work/
Make sure your essay doesn't fizzle out or just come to an abrupt end
Your conclusion should:

'leave (the reader) with a clear impression that the purposes of the essay have been achieved'
(Pallant, 2004, p.41)
Conclusions
Your conclusion should refer back to the essay question and summarise the key elements of the argument. You do not need to restate all the points you have made in your essay.
Don't include any new material, this should all be in the main body of your essay.
If appropriate for the essay question, try to present some kind of conclusion or tentative answer to the question (based on the argument you have made).
If appropriate to the question you may also want to place your argument in the wider context. For example, in a theoretical social work essay, what are the implication for practice?
It is better to raise questions than provide over simplified or naive answers.
Make sure any conclusions you reach are supported by the argument made in your essay. You will not earn marks for unqualified opinions.
conclusions
Example format:

1. Restate the question (helps keep the conclusion relevant)
2. Draw together the key points/significant findings of argument
3. Present answers (if possible) to your question
4. Place your argument in the wider context
5. Raise any questions/implications/ limitations
Conclusions
Essay question: What is the importance of imitation in early childhood development?
Conclusion

The ability of infants to imitate in their earliest months remains a contentious issue complicated by methodological limitations. Conflicting evidence of early infant imitation is associated with differing theories on how cognitive abilities develop. When the role of imitation by the caregiver is included in the consideration of child development, it can be seen that imitative sequences play a vital role in the early development of the infant’s relationship with the caregiver. Once the child is able to interact with the environment, imitation has a role in development as shown by theories of scaffolding and social learning. However, whilst imitation is important to the establishment of the relationship with the caregiver, evidence suggests that the child’s inherent perceptual abilities and individual temperament also influence the nature of these interactions. In this way, imitation can be seen as having an important combined role in early child development.
example
Essay question: What is the importance of imitation in early childhood development?
Conclusion

The ability of infants to imitate in their earliest months remains a contentious issue complicated by methodological limitations.

Conflicting evidence of early infant imitation is associated with differing theories on how cognitive abilities develop. When the role of imitation by the caregiver is included in the consideration of child development, it can be seen that imitative sequences play a vital role in the early development of the infant’s relationship with the caregiver. Once the child is able to interact with the environment, imitation has a role in development as shown by theories of scaffolding and social learning. However, whilst imitation is important to the establishment of the relationship with the caregiver, evidence suggests that the child’s inherent perceptual abilities and individual temperament also influence the nature of these interactions.
In this way, imitation can be seen as having an important combined role in early child development.
Restates essay question/topic
Draws together key points of argument
When you have written your conclusion ask yourself, does it:
Refer back to the essay question?
Summarise the key points of the argument?
Present some kind of conclusions/tentative answer to the question?
Relate the conclusions to the wider context (if appropriate)?
Leave you with the impression that the purposes of the essay have been achieved?
A good test is to read your introduction immediately followed by your conclusion. They should flow well and give a clear indication of the argument made in the main body of your essay.
http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/writing-conclusions/
For ideas on vocabulary & phrases for conclusions visit Manchester University's Academic Phrasebank
concluding thoughts/tentative answer to essay question
Conclusions
Full transcript