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Genetic Mutation

Max and Avery's Prezi

Max R

on 8 February 2013

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Transcript of Genetic Mutation

There are four main types of Mutation.



Frameshift Genetic Mutations What even is a mutation? Good Bad Bad Effects Harmful mutations are much more common than helpful and neutral mutations. Harmful mutations create negative side affects during you life, such as cancer or RNA destruction leading to malfunctioning proteins, which is harmful or deadly about 70% of the time. Mutations can result in bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics, which is harmful to humans. This is a problem with malaria, so two separate medicines are generally prescribed to lower the risk of the bacteria becoming resistant. Mutations can also happen during conception, when a defective sperm or egg provides and extra chromosome. Down Syndrome happens in this way. M Causes of Mutations include chemicals, radiation, and even random chance.
Some Chemicals, like N-Ethyl, attach to the replicating DNA and interfere with replication. Others, Like Nitrous Acid, change A and C nucleotide groups so that they bond incorrectly.
Some other outside Influences can also harm DNA, from plain oxygen to UV Radiation, which, which can cause C and T to bond to themselves, which causes problems during replication. There are also just plain old errors, for example, one base being skipped in replication, or DNA bonding to the wrong pair (in and "X", not a bar) from luck or from chemical interference. This only happens about once every 100,000,000 bases. Good Effects Originally caused by a mutation, it is now carried down genetically. It requires two recessive alleles to show symptoms.

Causes blood cells to form as crescents, not ovals, reducing their oxygen carrying capacity. Victims suffer from infrequent "crises", which cause pain, fatigue, and rapid heart rate. However, those ho show the trait are immune to Malaria.

Hospital stays during crises. Blood transfusions , pain medicine, and surgery in the hip and eye, which can be damaged from lack of blood.

Carried on an autosome, it is a recessive autosomal trait passed down between parents and offspring. There are also many positive effects of mutation, foremost being evolution (organisms that mutate helpful traits, like having a more efficient enzyme, are more likely to reproduce and pass on that mutated trait). One such helpful mutation is the CCR5 gene mutation. This mutation gives people with one copy of the mutation improved HIV/AIDS resistance, while people with two copies are immune to HIV. Good or Bad? Hint: Just like in real life, you don't actually get to choose Some mutations are both harmful and helpful. For example, it is suspected that one rare genetic combination Increases your chances of getting cancer but also guarantees that your can be cured of certain types of cancer. What can Undergo Mutation? Anything that is alive can go through mutation. This includes humans, lemurs, rabbits, trees, mushrooms, spinach, bacteria, and protists. There are also two nonliving things that can undergo mutations, Viruses and Prions, (stand-alone proteins that can cause diseases like mad cow disease). Smaller parts of living things that have separate DNA can also mutate without changing the rest of the organism (single cells, mitochondria, and chloroplasts). Basically, anything with DNA can mutate, because nothing replicates perfectly. What Causes utations ? ? ? ? Types of Mutation

A Review Game Mutation Madness C T G G A G

C T C G Round 1 Answer is...

deletion C T G G A G

C T G G T G G A G Round 2 An incorrect nucleotide is subtitued for the correct nucleotide

Some random nucleotides are inserted into the sequence

Nucleotides are removed from the sequence

A single nucleotide is removed, which alters all of the following codons. A mutation is a change in the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or any other genetic element. Mutations result from unrepaired damage to DNA or to RNA genomes. Mutations may or may not produce visible changes in the characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations cause many good things and bad things, including evolution (good) and cancer(bad). Specific Examples example:




Heredity: Sickle-cell Anemia Down Syndrome Chromosome #21 receives one extra copy. It is the most common single cause of birth defects in humans. Risk of having an affected child increases with mother's age.

Physical effects such as a small head, weak muscle tone, slow development, weak heart, cataracts, hearing problems, and sleep apnea (a temporary stoppage of breathing while asleep), and mental conditions such as dementia, learning disabilities, and poor reasoning skills.

Surgery if certain heart and intestine problems occur, and therapy to assist with interpersonal skills and self-sufficiency.

It is simply a fairly common mistake made during oogenesis and spermatogenesis. It is not passed down from parent to child.
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