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TOK Zemek Segeťa

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Marek Zemek

on 18 January 2015

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Transcript of TOK Zemek Segeťa

How does emotion stemming from history alter one's ethical reasoning today?

"The relationship of white and black people in South Africa after Apartheid."
ToK
Michael Segeťa
Marek Zemek
Is emotion a good way of justifying actions?
To what extent are historical sources reliable?
How much can one's ethics be altered?
The racial tensions in South Africa are caused by decades of oppresion and injustice by the white Apartheid government.
Black South Africans have a right to be enraged, but their anger is misguided, and their ethics are skewed by the unfairness of the past.
The situation would be significantly better if the public was introduced to a more rational explanation of the past and how the present has changed
17th century - Dutch, then English colony
Early 20th century - Independence followed by power struggle
1940's - Afrikaner National Party gains power
Apartheid created and employed in South Africa
Racial separation until the 1990's
Apartheid started losing international support
Weakening of old power
Looser racial restrictions, black parties allowed
1994 - all-race elections
Sources:

"The History of Apartheid in South Africa." The History of Apartheid in South Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2015. <http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html>.

"Killings of White Farmers Highlight Toxic Apartheid Legacy in South Africa." NBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://worldnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/11/30/15571149-killings-of-white-farmers-highlight-toxic-apartheid-legacy-in-south-africa>.

"Ethical Reasoning: A Key Capability." Ethical Reasoning, Ethics. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://www.wesleyan.edu/ethics/reason.html>.

"Genocide Watch." Genocide Watch. N.p., Oct. 2013. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://www.genocidewatch.org/southafrica.html>.

"Německý Odsun Archives - Sudety." Sudety RSS. N.p., 29 Mar. 2011. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://sudetenland.cz/category/nemecky-odsun/>.

"Anger." Http://www.apa.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://apa.org/topics/anger/index.aspx>.

Lazarus, R., and B. Lazarus. "Anger." Anger. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://changingminds.org/explanations/emotions/anger.htm>.

Robbins, Michael W. "Letter From Military History - January 2013." History Net Where History Comes Alive World US History Online Letter From Military History January 2013 Comments. N.p., 02 Nov. 2012. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://www.historynet.com/letter-from-military-history-january-2013.htm>.

Velasquez, Manuel, Claire Andre, Thomas Shanks, and Michael J. Meyer. "What Is Ethics?" What Is Ethics? N.p., 2010. Web. 02 Jan. 2015. <http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/whatisethics.html>.

Warner, Izabella. "'To Buy or Not to Buy?' Emotions, Impulsive Behavior, the Consumer and Marketing Implications." 'To Buy or Not to Buy?' Emotions, Impulsive Behavior, the Consumer and Marketing Implications. Academia.edu, n.d. Web. 05 Jan. 2015. <http://www.academia.edu/868505/_To_buy_or_not_to_buy_Emotions_Impulsive_Behavior_the_Consumer_and_Marketing_Implications>.

"The Havel Festival : Timeline : The Velvet Revolution, 1989." The Havel Festival : Timeline : The Velvet Revolution, 1989. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Jan. 2015. <http://www.untitledtheater.com/havel/timeline/velvet-revolution.html>

"Managing Strong Emotional Reactions to Traumatic Events: Tips for Parents and Teachers." Managing Strong Emotional Reactions. N.p., 2002. Web. 05 Jan. 2015. <http://www.nasponline.org/resources/crisis_safety/angermgmt_general.aspx>.

"Approaching History, Bias." Approaching History | Bias. N.p., 17 Mar. 2006. Web. 05 Jan. 2015. <https://www.umass.edu/wsp/history/outline/bias.html>.

Caulfield, Philip. "Father Vows Revenge on Murderer Who Killed His Son in 1975; 'monster' May Be Paroled Soon." NY Daily News. N.p., 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 05 Jan. 2015. <http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/father-vows-revenge-murderer-killed-son-1975-kill-paroled-early-article-1.119826>.

"Who Is the Other Now?" The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 20 Sept. 2014. Web. 05 Jan. 2015. <http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21618844-tricky-balance-responsibility-towards-jews-and-other-minorities-who-other-now>.

"What Is Anti-Semitism?" What Is Anti-Semitism? N.p., 2001. Web. 05 Jan. 2015. <http://archive.adl.org/hate-patrol/antisemitism.html#.VKsRRtLF92Q>.

Thomlinson, David. "The Importance of Bias in History." Planet Papers, 3 Mar. 2014. Web. 6 Jan. 2015. <http://www.planetpapers.com/free-term-paper/The-Importance-of-Bias-in-History-5493.aspx>.
Tensions caused by past events
White farmers (boers) often target of violent attacks
Caucasian victims make up about 40% of RSA's homicides, 95% of which are commited by a black offender
Whites only make up around 9% of the population
Hatred toward Germans in Sudettenland after World War 2.
Conclusion
Discrimination in the South of the United States of America
After World War 2
Decrees of Edvard Beneš
Their property was confiscated, their nationality taken away, and they were deported.
Vigilante "partizan courts" often executed innocent Germans
Anger or Rage - A basic human emotion

Anger might be cathartic, but "excessive anger can cause problems. [These problems] make it difficult to think straight and harm your physical and mental health." - American Psychological Association

Anger causes fear

"Sheep fear a sheepdog - the result is that they scatter in all directions, which is not what the sheepdog really wants." - Changing Minds

Is emotion a good way of justifying actions?
Joy - another basic emotion
Marketing focuses on basic human emotions
It is impossible to think about buying a product only rationally
Emotions happen fast, they are the first reaction.
The buyer feels an urge to own the product
Impulsive buying- sudden, irresistible, strong urge to buy
There is no time to contemplate the purchase - irrational
“History is written by the victors.” -unknown author

Bias of historical sources

Limited by perception, frame of reference

Skewed by personal interests, background

To what extent are historical sources reliable?
Many people are not completely sure what "ethics" mean

Often described as "what society and laws accept"

Society or laws do not always have to be truly ethical

People's ethics can be influenced by higher authorities or concepts.

How much can one's ethics be altered?
Images:

N.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Africa_1595,_Gerardus_Mercator_(3797082-recto).jpg>.

N.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/101/596/65-254-117-168-overcoming_apartheid-a0a9c0-a_3272.jpg>.

N.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://shoff11.blog.sbc.edu/files/2011/04/Apartheid.jpg>.

N.d. WHITE GENOCIDE REMEMBRANCE DAY South Africa. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. <http://www.armahellas.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/mandela__supporters321.jpg>.

N.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. <https://luvmyaka.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/anger1.jpg>.

N.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. <http://hdwallpapersfactory.com/company/the-history-channel-logo-in-high-quality-desktop-hd-wallpaper-224579/>.

N.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. <http://www.troll.me/meme/history-channel>.

N.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. <http://imgfave.com/view/4395744>.

Homer & His Devil and Angel. Digital image. Homer & His Devil and Angel - The Simpsons Picture Read More at Http://stuffpoint.com/the-simpsons/image/218319/homer-and-his-devil-and-angel-picture/#AH8CWqoRYfiZLrWG.99. Stuffpoint, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. <http://stuffpoint.com/the-simpsons/image/218319/homer-and-his-devil-and-angel-picture/>.

N.d. Happy Family. Web. 4 Jan. 2015. <http://fruity072.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/istock20happy20family.jpg>.

N.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2015. <http://sisbee.tumblr.com/>.

N.d. Living By Lysa. Web. 5 Jan. 2015. <http://www.livingbylysa.com/2011/11/freedom-and-democracy-day.html>.

http://www.reddit.com/r/HistoryPorn/comments/196p07/leon_trotsky_after_his_disgrace_and_exile_from/
It is extremely hard to find sources written from a non-biased point of view
Sources or authorities, whom people trust, can easily manipulate with their ethics.

The act of behavior is mostly coming from historical events

Hate against anti-semitism is dogma in Germany after World War 2

Yet, nearly 6 decades after the Holocaust concluded, Anti-Semitism still exists as the scourge of the world. (Eliot Engel)

Conservative people who are not willing to change their ethics

Ethics can be also altered by historical events
White Americans discriminate other races living in the United States

White Americans -> Not the first inhabitants of the United States

Especially in the South of the USA

Indians (Original inhabitants) are also heavily discriminated in the past and also in the present


"The relationship of white and black people in South Africa after Apartheid."
"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" - George Santayana

"I've got news for Mr. Santayana: we're doomed to repeat the past no matter what. That's what it is to be alive.” - Kurt Vonnegut
How does emotion stemming from history alter one's ethical reasoning today?
History makes the present and future, and therefore the ethical reasoning of people is affected by it.
Its effect might be positive as well as negative.
It is important view an issue from multiple points of view while trying not to be influenced by emotions or other people.
How does emotion stemming from history alter one's ethical reasoning today?
How does emotion stemming from history alter one's ethical reasoning today?
How does emotion stemming from history alter one's ethical reasoning today?
Emotion leads to impulsive behavior, which might be used to create change, or misused to create terror.
The velvet revolution in Czechoslovakia in 1989 - timeline
Minor protests throughout 1989
November 17th - the police violently disperse a student demonstration. Police kill a student (later shown to not be true)
November 19th - The Civic Forum, a revolutionary organisation, is formed by Václav Havel
December 7th - Adamec, the communist prime minister, resigns
December 29th - Havel elected as president
Is emotion a good way of justifying actions?
Emotion leads to impulsive behavior, which might be used to create change, or misused to create terror.
Anger is a defensive mechanism
It can create an urge to retaliate - Impulsive behavior
An individual angry at a small number of people can hastily generalize the problem and associate it with a whole group, ethnic, etc.
No later rational contemplation of this anger can relt in violence
There are built-up emotions caused by historical events, which can change the way one behaves significantly.
How does emotion stemming from history alter one's ethical reasoning today?
How does emotion stemming from history alter one's ethical reasoning today?
Bias in historical writing is often unconscious
Historians often have their own interests, leading them to less-than-objective results.
The audience has trouble seeing the subjectivity.
The best observer is one that is indifferent to the issue.
If a historical work is likable, relevant to the present, or publishable, there is good reason to think it is biased.
"I think there cannot be a doubt that the most essential virtue is disinterestedness" - Philip Gilbert Hamerton
Historical bias is in itself a product of the time.
It can show the perspective the writer had when writing about the issue
Other than revealing tha perspective of the writer, bias is undesirable
History channel's
Dogfights
is a TV series about fighter pilots.
The show appears to be biased towards the US forces, as most of the stories, interviews, and situations presented are from a US perspective
How does emotion stemming from history alter one's ethical reasoning today?
Historical sources, due to their bias toward one or the other group involved in a tense current situation,can be dangerously malignant to this present situation.
impressionability - by emotions, by historical bias, and by figures of authority
Emotions are not inherently bad, it depends on how a person is influenced by them.
Historical bias offers a unique point of view on a situation, but it also conceals part of the truth.
Basing one's ethics on the ethics of a culture, society, or laws is not always right
Czechs hastily generalized the situation; they concluded that all germans were bad.
Their actions were a product of their emotions, htere was almost no rational thinking involved.
The government did not help the situation, the decrees of Beneš were directed agains Germans, as well.
How does emotion stemming from history alter one's ethical reasoning today?
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