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Spanish Past Tenses - Preterite and Imperfect
Transcript of Spanish Past Tenses - Preterite and Imperfect
EDIM 508 - Spring 2011 Pennsylvania State Standards 5.1 Communication
5.3 Culture References This presentation is intended to give students a variety of visual representations of the different uses and conjugations of regular and irregular conjugations in the imperfect and preterite past tenses in Spanish. It was also designed to demonstrate the tenses used within context through audio and visual media. This presentation could serve as an introductory tool or as a reference for practice and review. CLEARVUE & SVE. (2011).
Bill_bly_ca. (2009). "Mariachi." [Photograph] Flickr Creative Commons. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/bill_bly_ca/3675206257/
Let's Learn Spanish Songs: Las Mananitas [Audio]. Available fromhttp://www.discoveryeducation.com/
Section A: The Preterit (continued from Program Five) [Video Segment]. Available from http://www.discoveryeducation.com/
Section B: The Imperfect Tense [Video Segment]. Available from http://www.discoveryeducation.com/
Sr. Jordan. (2009). 02 Spanish Lesson Preterite Irregulars Song [Video Segment]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iFUAWMMdE7c and available from http://www.senorjordan.com/los-videos/ Instructional Purpose El Pasado El Pretérito El Imperfecto There are two past tenses in Spanish. The preterite and the imperfect. They are not interchangeable! Uses of the Imperfect:
1. ongoing action (was/were)
2. repeated action (used to)
3. no definite beginning or end
5. interrupted activity (cuando/mientras) The following trigger words typically indicate the use of the preterite.
todos los días
de vez en cuando
frecuentemente Listen to the following traditional Mexican birthday song: Las Mananitas. There are three tenses used in this song: Present, Preterite and Imperfect. Identify what verb or verbs are in the Imperfect. Remember, there are three types of verbs in Spanish: AR, ER, IR. These endings for AR verbs in the Imperfect: aba, abas, aba, ábamos, abais, aban These are the endings for ER and IR verbs in the Imperfect: ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían There are NO stem-changes in the Imperfect! There are three irregular verbs: SER, IR and VER. SER = era, eras, era, éramos, erais, eran IR = iba, ibas, iba, íbamos, ibais, iban VER = veía, veías, veía, veíamos, veíais, veían For a more detailed review and to practice, watch the following video! Watch out for the Chupacabra! Triggers:
el año pasado
hace un mes
el tres de abril
a las ocho
Uses of the Preterite:
1. one-time action
2. definite beginning and end
3. narration (what happened)
4. interrupting action (cuando) Look at the two pictures below: Can you identify who the question and sentence is about? Pay close attention to the preterite tense ending. Also, can you identify the reflexive verb used? Do you remember when to use reflxive pronouns? Regular verbs that end with AR use these endings: é, aste, ó, amos, asteis, aron Regular verbs that end with ER or IR share these endings: í, iste, ió, imos, isteis, ieron There are A LOT of irregular verbs in the Preterite tense. Keep your arms and legs inside at all times. Enjoy the ride! Any verb that ends with CAR, GAR or ZAR with have a spelling change in the YO form before adding the regular AR YO form ending: é. C --> QU, G-->GU, Z-->C IR and SER share the same exact forms in the Preterite. You will have to use context clues to figure out when each one is used. The forms are fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron DAR and VER share the same endings but keep the first letter of the infinitive. The forms of DAR are di, diste, dio, dimos, disteis, dieron. Swap out the D for a V and you have the forms for VER! Any ER or IR verb that has a vowel right before the ER or IR ending will change the I to Y in the third person singular and plural conjugations (ió --> yó, ieron --> yeron). They also add accents to all the forms that do not have accents except for the 3rd person plural form. Some verbs that follow this pattern include: LEER, CREER, OIR, CAER LEER
buscar – yo busqué
jugar – yo jugué
almorzar – yo almorcé
AR and ER verbs NEVER stem-change in the Preterite! IR verbs do stem-change in the Preterite but only in 3rd person singular and plural forms. The only stem-changes are from E-->I and O-->U PEDIR
Don't stop there! There is also a set of verbs that share an irregular set of endings and have a spelling change! Here is the irregular set of endings: e, iste, o, imos, isteis, ieron The verbs and their spelling changes are: ANDAR - anduv, ESTAR - estuv, TENER -tuv, CABER - cup, PODER - pud, PONER - pus, SABER - sup, QUERER - quis, HACER - hic/hiz, VENIR - vin
Other verbs that share the same irregular set of endings and have a spelling change include: DECIR (dij) and TRAER (traj) as well as verbs that end with DUCIR such as TRADUCIR (traduj), CONDUCIR (conduj). However, do you see a new pattern? When the spelling change ends with a J, use ERON instead of IERON for the 3rd person plural ending! Do you remember the word "Hay" from the present tense? It means "There is or There are". To say "There was or There were" in the past use the preterite 3rd person singular form of the infinitive HABER, which is HUBO. Overwhelmed by irregulars? Watch this video to learn a catchy song that will help you memorize the spelling changes! Time to review! Watch this video to practice with the preterite after reviewing the regular and irregular conjugations!