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Transcript of Protestant Reformation
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)
Society of Jesus –
Allegiance to the pope
Extensive training & secret missions
Missions in India, China, & Japan
Council of Trent (1545-8, 1551-2, 1562-3)
Authority in both the Bible & Tradition
Spiritual orders and ecclesiastical organization
Spain & the Church
Edict of Pope Nicholas V (1455)
Valladolid debate (1550–1551)
Bartolomé Las Casas (d 1566) vs Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda
Slavery vs freedom according to Catholic law
Historia de Las Indias
Francisco de Vitoria (1483-1546)
Indigenous human rights by natural law theory
Charles V's New Laws (1542)
King Henry VIII (1491-1547)
Act of Supremacy (1534) – head of the English Church (Excommunicated)
Dissolution of monasteries (1536-9)
Thomas Cranmer (1533-53): 42 Articles
Book of Common Prayer (1549 & 1552)
Queen Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)
Defeats Spanish Armada (1588)
John Calvin (1509-64) Reformed Theology
Institutes of the Christian Religion (1st ed. 1536 & 4th ed. 1559)
Systematic Protestant theology
Sovereignty of God and Human Depravity
Predestination/ The elect
Geneva: haven for Reformers
Puritanism: moral self control & providential history
Protestant work ethic
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
German Augustinian monk
Fear of God
Wittenberg-Professor & Preacher
Justification by faith alone
95 Theses; Pope Leo X, Indulgences-Tetzel
Diet of Worms (August 18, 1521)
Wartburg Castle-Iconoclasm & German N.T. then complete German Bible (1534)-sola scriptura (Word of God)
Marriage to former nun Katharina von Bora-6 children
Primacy of the Word of God over tradition
Priesthood of all believers
Hiddeness of God/theology of the cross
Two Kingdoms (Ex: Sermon on the Mount)
Peasant’s War (1525)
Thomas Müntzer (1489-1525)
Sermon to the Princes (1524)
Anti-Semitism in later work
Attention to Hymns and Art
Peace of Augsburg (1555): German states by Catholic and Lutheran princes
Huguenots (French Calvinists) vs. Catholics
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (August 23, 1572): 10,000 dead Huguenots (Aug-Oct)
King Henry of Navarre (Henry IV, r. 1589-1610): The Edict of Nantes (1598)
The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
Germany: from 21 million to 13 million
Peace of Westphalia (1648): The Empire split; the sovereignty of states; Calvinism recognized
Albrecht Dürer (05/1471-04/1528)
Who does this look like?
Dürer's Man of Sorrows (1522)
Why paint this self-portrait?
1. Summarize the main ideas of the Protestant Reformation.
What are the differences between the most famous Reformers: Luther and Calvin?
2. What are some reasons the Reformation survived?
What is the treaty that theoretically ended the Protestant and Catholic wars?
3. Who are the Jesuits and where were their missions?
Chinese & Indian Reformers
Wang Yang-ming (1472-1529)
Unified knowledge & action
Against caste system
Neither Hindu or Muslim