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Unification of Germany And Italy
Transcript of Unification of Germany And Italy
Hannah Frith, Catherine Drotar Nationalism What is nationalism?
-patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
• an extreme form of this, esp. marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries.
• advocacy of political independence for a particular country. Nationalism was the foundation of both the Italian and German unification. Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Garibaldi Worked with Mazzini Camilo di Cavour
Prime Minister of Sardinia Help from Napolean to conquer Austria Caught trying to take over a warship, became fugitive Fought 3 times to unify Italy
Defended Rome against invasions
Forced to fleee Italy Successful in 1861, town to town Planned Sardinia's revolt against Austria Inspired other italian states to revolt Why do people unify? Causes of the German Unification Rivarlies between the Kingdoms of Prussia and Austria
Prussia wanted continuous, secure, land borders.
The French Revolution
The Industrial Revolution German Unification In the beginning of the eighteenth century, central Europe was separated into roughly 300 separate independent states, loosely bound together by the Holy Roman Empire.
By the mid-eighteenth century, Europe’s two strongest and larges states, Prussia (ruled by the Hohenzollerns) and Austria (ruled by the Habsburgs) , developed a rivalry towards each other. Austria was traditionally the more dominate state and as a result, the Habsburg king was elected the Holy Roman Emperor.
Prussia became a more powerful state, strengthened by newly acquired lands and an enlarged military, and as such began to challenge Austria’s power.
Napoleon's armies occupied, moved through, or were allied with German states in the early 19th century. When the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, the Council of Vienna decided to consolidate the German States into a German Confederation.
This was a confederation of 39 states (including Prussia and Austria)
Each member pledged to defend any other member who fell under foreign attack.
It fell short of any national or economic unity.
The first effort to form economic unity among the members of the German confederation came with the Zollverein customs union.
Emigration by the Germans to the United States increased during the Industrial Revolution.
People sought religious, political, and personal freedom
The United States negotiated and signed treaties, conventions and agreements to regulate trade, commerce, navigation, naturalization, and inheritence rights with the smaller German state. Kleinedeutsche versus Grossdeutsche Kleinedeutsche:
The unified German state should exclude Austria.
The unified German state should include Austria. Wars of Unification 1) 1862:
Danish War: over the duchies of Schleswig and Holestein
settled the question of Kleinedeutsche versus Grossdeutsche
Prussia and her allies against Austria and other Germanic states
1867- Bismarck created the North German Confederation, which was a model for the German Empire.
final act of German unification When news of the 1848 revolution in France spread to Germany, many people felt it was time for a unified Germany. Riots that broke out in rural areas in the weeks that followed spread to urban areas. Revolutionaries wanted freedom of press, a national militia, a German parliament, and trial by jury, as well as the abolition of powerful aristocrats, constitutions for several German states, a fair system of taxes, and freedom of religion. German National Assembly: May 18, 1848 at Frankfurt am Main This was the first assembly to be elected freely by the German people. Despite the election of an imperial vice regent (Reichsverweser), the government was flawed from the beginning because of its lack of a strong executive power. Otto Von Bismark Prince of Bismark
He attempted to start a war with France in order to gain Germany a sense of nationalism. They would unite to fight the French He became the first chancellor of the German empire and forced France to pay
$1 billion and give up previously German land. Young Italy: 1831 Italian nationalist movement
A group of people that are inspired to work towards an independent, unified, republican Italian nation.
It was based on the moral and spiritual revival of the Italian people. Italian Unification In 1796 the kingdoms of Sardinia and Piedmont conquered by the French (Napoleon) in 1796 French power weakened, Austrians ruled Congress of Vienna 1814 to 1815
Peninsula Italy ruled almost exclusively by Austria with Sardinia ruling several smaller regions There were frequent rebellions
1848 a revolution in Rome that forced Pope
Pius the IX to flee the city
The Italians achieved freedom but was short lived
The Pope and Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli appealed Catholic powers in Europe (France and Austria as well as Spain)
They gained help overturning rebellions
With the conbined attackes of all three countries they were forced to surrender to French forces in july 1849 Secured a great amount of the Italian peninsula accomplishing most of the Unification Austria maintained a good deal of Italy Most of Lombardy was transferred to France and several cities went to Sardinia 1860 Parma, Romagna, Modena, and several parts of Italy voted for an annexation to Sardinia Results of the Italian Unification The Kingdom of Italy had been formed
The Seven Weeks War between Austria and Prussia
France got the territories of Nice Savoy The Italian Unification was a complicated process. Most internal as well as external problems were solved after Italy became stable. Today’s founding fathers of Italy are Cavour, Garibaldi, and Mazzini. The Italian unification also known as the Italian Risorgimento is known as the chain of political and military events that produced Italy into a peninsula in 1861. Conflicting and Interfering problems against the Unification of Italy included:
-Austrian control of Lombardy and Venice
-Independent Italian states
-Autonomy of the Papal power
-Limited power of Italian leaders 1)Pre-Revolutionary: After the Napoleonic Wars and Napoleon Bonaparte’s second defeat, major powers met in a conference called the Congress of Vienna in 1815 in which limits were set on nations and territory that Napoleon had conquered were to be divided. 2) Revolutionary: Giuseppe Mazzini was a man that not only wanted to unite Italy but turn it into a republic form of government. Mazzini created a small group of people called Young Italy that was to spread ideas of unification, revolutions, and republicanism. Results of the German Unification Trains (are awesome) were widely used throughout Germany as a source of transportation for goods. Treaty of Frankfurt gave Germany a large sense of pride which lasted until the 20th century. This empire was ruled by Prussian bloodline. Franco - Prussian War 1866- Prussia gains victory against Austria Bismark believes that a war against France would bring sense of nationalism to the German people and give them a push to unify Treaty of Frankfurt $1 billion indemnity to be pid by France to Germany in three years France ceded most of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany 5 Stages of Italian Unification Cavour’s policy and the Role of Piedmont: Trade made a big leap to the unification of Italy. Many uprisings occurred. Garibaldi’s Campaign in Southern Italy: Riots and uprisings in the papal States gave Piedmonts troops to unite under one order. Creation of the Italian Kingdom: The Seven Week’s War between Austria and Prussia helped create Italy’s geographic area of today. By: Johanna Iniguez, Hannah Frith, Jonathan Clemente, and Catherine Drotar AP World Themes Statebuilding, expansion and conflict:
monarchies and aristocrats lost power and democracy and republicanism took hold
nationalism increased in Italy and Germany
revolts and revolutions led by common people aided in unifying the nations Developments and transformation of Social Structures:
there was a greater sense of national unity in Germany and Italy
Italian and Austrian rivalries
The lower class had more power because of the revolts and revolutions