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Briefly describe the reading
Transcript of Briefly describe the reading
• By assigning children specific labels aren’t we just promoting special or even segregated provision, (Winter and O’Raw, 2010)
• Naming a child as ‘special’ identifies them as different from others that aren’t always valued by society (Winter and O’Raw, 2010)
• There is the danger that negative labeling can lead to a 'self-fulfilling prophecy'.
• Diagnostic labels can be unreliable and there validity questionable (Henley
Special Schools are humiliating
All children should attend a mainstream school
Labeling, Special Schools and Inclusion
Kant (1785) - people should not be used as a means to another person's ends
Stereotypical views on special education (Harris, 2010)
Segregation of students with SEN (Winzer, 2006)
OFSTED (2006) Inclusion: does it matter where pupils are taught? [Online] OFSTED. Available from: http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/inclusion-does-it-matter-where-pupils-are-taught [Accessed 14.02.14].
Ofsted (2009) Twelve Outstanding Special Schools – Excelling through inclusion [Online] Ofsted. Available at http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/twelve-outstanding-speicla-schools-excelling-through-inclusion [Accessed 24.02.2014].
Reed, P., Osborne, L. and Waddington, E. (2012) 'A comparative study of the impact of mainstream and special school placement on the behaviour of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.' British Educational Research Journal 38 (5): pp.749–63.
Riddick, B. (2000) 'An Examination of the Relationship Between Labeling and Stigmatisation with Special Reference to Dyslexia.' Disability & Society 15 (4): pp.653-667. [Online] Available from: http://ejournals.ebsco.com.ezproxy.bathspa.ac.uk:2048/Direct.asp?AccessToken=5WJ4F4RTCJWENVS6RB1YJCOP1EX4T69NF6&Show=Object [Accessed 14.02.14].
Runswick-Cole, K. and Hodge, N. (2009) 'Needs or rights? A challenge to the discourse of special education.' British Journal Of Special Education 36 (4) pp. 198-203. [Online] Available from: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/6098/1/hodge_-_needs_or_rights_submitted_version.pdf4)
Special Educational Needs and Disability Act
(2001): Chapter 10. London: HMSO. [Online] Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2001/10/contents [Accessed 27.02.14].
UN (2007) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Article 7 [Online] United Nations. Available from: http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull.shtml [Accessed 19.02.14].
Wedell, K. (2005) 'Dilemmas in the quest for inclusion.'
British Journal of Special Education
32 (1), pp. 3-11. [Online Available from: http://teach.newport.ac.uk/sen/SEN_0708/Beh_Resources/Inc_Dilemmas.pdf [Accessed 26.02.14].
Winter, E. and O’Raw, P. (2010)
Literature Review of the Principles and Practices relating to Inclusive Education for Children with Special Educational Needs
[Online] National Council for Special Education. Available from: http://www.ncse.ie/uploads/1/ncse_inclusion.pdf [Accessed 25.02.14].
Winzer, M. A. (2006) 'Confronting difference: an excursion through the history of special education'.
Florian, L. ed.
The Sage Handbook of Special Education.
London: SAGE: pp. 21-33.
'A Question of Universality: Inclusive Education and the Principle of Respect'
By Ruth Cigman
Universalist vs. Moderate
Cigman (2007), SEN children find it more difficult to learn in mainstream schools
• Moore (2008) and her sons’ experiences
Within-class segregation, Wedell (2005):
• Being Velcro-ed to LSA’s
• Children with autism gain better social skills in special schools
• Special school closure = Less likely to socialise within society
Society has created this feeling of 'humiliation
• Old school segregation, 1944 Education Act
• 'Abnormal' and 'handicapped' stereotypes
Article 24 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2007)
Quality of education is equal in either school (OFSTED, 2006)
Allows a child to be social and become part of society (Department for International Development, 2010)
Department for Education Green Paper (2011) parental choice should be strengthened
Kant (1785) freedom to control ones values and interests
Galton and MacBeath (2002) teachers dealing with more pressures
Lack of expertise
NUT survey (2003), constraints on schools = professional shortage of skills
(2003) struggle to education SEN in mainstream schools
Ofsted (2009), special schools provide for the very vulnerable children
Acknowledging and accurately understanding a child’s learning differences is a starting point for addressing their needs appropriately. (Armstrong and Squires, 2012; Gallagher, 1976
Broadened our perspective
Still retain special schools for those who want to be there and need them
Labels are not the problem, society is
Labels allow those with similar types of difference to develop their own culture and advocacy groups if they wish to. (Armstrong and Squires, 2012
Labels can lead to greater self-understanding and empowerment. (Gallagher 1976,
Armstrong, D. and Squires, G. (2012)
Contemporary issues in special educational needs - considering the whole child
. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill.
Cigman, R. (2007) 'A Question of Universality: Inclusive Education and the Principle of Respect'.
Journal of Philosophy of Education
, 41 (4): pp. 775-793.
Cole, T., Daniels, H. and Visser, J. (2003) 'Patterns of provision for pupils with behavioural difficulties in England: A study of government statistics and behaviour support plan data'.
Oxford Review of Education
29 (2): 187-205.
Department for Education (2011)
Support and aspiration: A new approach to special educational needs and disability
[Online] Department for Education. Available from: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/Green-Paper-SEN.pdf [Accessed 27.02.14].
Department for International Development (2010)
Guidance Note on Education and Disability
[Online] Department for International Development. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/67664/edu-chi-disabil-guid-note.pdf [Accessed 19.02.14].
Galton, M. and MacBeath, J. (2002)
A Life in Teaching: The Workloads of Primary Teachers, Report for the National Union of Teachers.
Cambridge: Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge.
Harris, R. (2010) 'Should special schools be abolished?.' SEN Magazine, 45. [Online] Available from: https://www.senmagazine.co.uk/articles/articles/senarticles/should-special-schools-be-abolished [Accessed 21.02.14].
Henley, M., Algozzine, R. F. and Ramsey, R. S. (2008) Characteristics of and Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild Disabilities. 6th Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kant, I. (1785) Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Moore, C. (2008) Why Inclusion is bad for Autism [Online] Times Educational Supplement. Available at: http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=2108433 [Accessed on 25.02.14].
NUT (2003) Special Educational Needs Co-Ordinators and the Revised Code of Practice: A NUT Survey. London: National Union of Teachers.
Access to more educational resources and funding. (Gallagher 1976,
Labels can act as mediators. (Armstrong and Squires, 2012)
Have attitudes towards labeling changed over time? (Runswick-Cole and Hodge, 2009)
- The 1944 Education Act
- The Warnock Report
- Code of practice for SEN
- The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001)