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Research Question & Hypothesis

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by

Melissa Hall

on 13 February 2013

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Transcript of Research Question & Hypothesis

Research Methods: Session 6 Research Question & Hypothesis By: Melissa Hall Results of Search Use your results in your clinical practice. Search the Literature Review of PICO Identify a Clinical Question In a patient with moderate plaque, will Listerine as compared with Crest Pro Health decrease plaque and increase gingival health? Listerine is more effective with plaque removal. What about all the literature you are reviewing,
how do researchers develop such questions
that lead to research studies? Researchers design
a testable study
from the research
question. You need this skill to be
able to identify components in a research study, such as the research question, so you can properly critique the study. Research Question Presents the problem or idea
that is to be examined in the study Population Identified Variables Identified Idea Reading of the Literature How can this study contribute to the profession of Dental Hygiene or Dental Therapy? Personal or Work
Experience Creative Act What do we know?

What do we not know? Testable ? Idea Brainstorm Literature Review Identify Variables Research Question Formulated Examples What are the adverse oral health effects of long-term exposure to higher fluoride concentrations in drinking water and black tea for a population living in Somalia? Does Type 2 Diabetes in adults play a significant role in dental implant failure? Does the addition of information on maternal oral health and disease transmission of caries during a prenatal interview promote a dental hygiene visit during pregnancy? Activity Hypothesis Explains or predicts the relationship or differences between 2 or more variables in terms of expected outcomes of a study Attempts to answer the research question Intelligent hunches, guesses or predictions Hypothesis Formulated before the study Worded clear, simple, concise Variables Population Predicted Outcome After data collection and analysis the hypothesis is either supported or not supported. Hypothesis 1) Alternate/Research Hypothesis Directional

Non-Directional 2) Null/Statistical Hypothesis Alternate Hypothesis Directional Non-Directional A statement about the expected relationship between variables; THERE IS A DIFFERENCE between the variables. Used more often Predicts the expected direction of the relationship between the variables. Example: Students in a computer-based head and neck anatomy course will score higher on the final examination than students in a lecture-based course. Indicates a proposed relationship, but does not predict the anticipated direction of the relationship. Example: Student final examination scores will be associated with the type of head and neck anatomy course taken. Statistical/Null Hypothesis States there NO DIFFERENCE between variables Example: There will be no difference in performance on the final examination among students who take a computer-based head and neck anatomy course than those who take a lecture-based course. Null Hypothesis If the data analysis reveals a statistically significant difference of relationship between variables, the NULL is REJECTED. This means there is a difference. Used when the researcher is unsure of the outcome Your Turn Initiated at birth, a caries preventative strategy that combines maternal xylitol chewing gum consumption and administration of xylitol syrup to the infant during tooth eruption will decrease caries in both the primary and permanent dentitions. Research Question

Null Hypothesis

Alternate Hypothesis (Directional)

Alternate Hypothesis (Non-Directional) There will be no difference between the perioscope group and non-perioscope group in subgingival calculus removal during scaling and root planing. Research Question

Null Hypothesis

Alternate Hypothesis (Directional)

Alternate Hypothesis (Non-Directional) Do infants develop fluorosis when consuming soy-based powdered formula versus milk-based powdered formula in addition to normal food and water intake? Research Question

Null Hypothesis

Alternate Hypothesis (Directional)

Alternate Hypothesis (Non-Directional) Poor oral self care will be associated with poor general health in both men and women. Research Question

Null Hypothesis

Alternate Hypothesis (Directional)

Alternate Hypothesis (Non-Directional) Summary Key Points When Writing or Critiquing a Research Question 1) Does the research question express a relationship between 2 or more variables?

2) Does the research question specify the nature of the population being studied?

3) Does the research question imply the possibility of empiric testing? Summary Key Points When Writing or Critiquing a Hypothesis 1) The hypothesis should be consistent with the literature review and the theoretical framework.

2) Relationship statement. It is preferable to indicate the direction of the relationship between the variables.

3) Testability is central to the soundness of a hypothesis. Remember, with more testing a hypothesis is more likely to be accepted because of increasing evidence, but a hypothesis is ultimately never proven.

4) State a hypothesis objectively using quantifiable words (greater than, less than, positively, etc.). Questions? Thank You Let's Evaluate Your Examples
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