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The War of 1812
Transcript of The War of 1812
The War of 1812
The British were preventing the Americans from trading with France.
The British were impressing (enslaving) American sailors into the Royal Navy.
Other Causes of the War
The British were supplying weapons for the Native Americans to attack Americans on the frontier.
The Americans might have wanted to conquer Canada.
Americans Invade Canada
After the American Revolution, many British Loyalists moved from the U.S. to Canada.
Many Americans moved too because they were offered land grants by Canada.
Why did the Americans invade?
America's population was growing.
The U.S. needed land for expansion.
The U.S. thought it would be easy because the British were too busy to defend it.
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American Reasons for the War
Took place during 1812
American forces greatly outnumbered the Canadian forces
The Americans carried out a series of attacks and burned down the Canadian Parliament
The Results of the Invasion
The Americans were poorly trained.
The British were well-prepared because of the Napoleonic Wars.
Many American soldiers were captured.
The Americans lost.
The Naval War
The British ships outnumbered American ships by about 20 to 1.
Americans at first won a number of victories at sea.
The U.S. had 6 frigates that won battles.
The Naval War 2
American ships, like the Constitution ("Old Ironsides") and the United States, raised the country's morale with victories.
American privateers (legal pirates) captured more than 1,000 British ships, which raised morale too.
American Naval Defeats
The Americans lost many battles during 1813
A British warship fought and captured the American warship
Captain James Lawrence coined the motto of the U.S. Navy "Don't give up the ship."
The Final Defeat
The superiority of the British navy began to have an effect.
The British blockaded the U.S. coast.
The British stopped American trade and American naval attacks.
The Americans lost.
Native American Battles
The Native Americans surrounded the United States in the north and the south.
They were angered by western expansion.
The Land War
The U.S. had some victories on land.
William Henry Harrison defeated the British and Native Americans.
Harrison won against Tecumseh's forces at the Battle of Thames in 1813.
The Land War 2
Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek Indians (British allies) at Horseshoe Bend in Alabama in 1814.
The Americans had 3,000 men and the Creeks had 1,000 men.
The Creeks were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson - they gave up their land.
The British Invade
The British focused on America after they won the Napoleonic Wars.
The British lost one of their first land battles in Canada during the summer of 1814.
The British got closer to victory in August 1814 near the Chesapeake Bay.
A British force arrived in Chesapeake Bay in 1814.
After making a failed stand outside of Washington D.C. the Americans and politicians left the city.
Dolly Madison, the president's wife, saved many important artifacts like George Washington's portrait.
The British enter the capital and started fires that consumed the city.
As revenge for burning down the Canadian parliament, the British burned down the White House and the Capitol.
From Washington D.C. the British troops moved toward Baltimore.
Lawyer Francis Scott Key, witnessed an all-night British bombardment of Fort McHenry near Baltimore harbor.
Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner."
The Americans won the battle.
The Treaty of Ghent
The British and Americans did not want the war.
The British knew they could not win.
In December 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed. The war was over on paper.
The original problems of impressment and American neutrality were not resolved.
British and American boundaries were restored.
Battle of New Orleans
It occurred two weeks after the peace treaty was signed.
In December 1814, the British tried to capture New Orleans.
American troops led by Andrew Jackson defended the city.
The British attacked the well-defended Americans.
The Americans won the battle in one hour.
The Battle of New Orleans
News of the Treaty of Ghent did not reach the U.S. until mid-February 1815.
On December 23, 1814, a British force of more than 5,000 men tried to take New Orleans from the south.
Andrew Jackson took his force of 5,000 soldiers and volunteers from all over the Mississipi Valley, including free African-Americans to defend New Orleans.
The British make a mistake
On January 8, the overconfident British, fresh from victories over the French in Europe, foolishly threw their troops against the well-defended Americans.
Without cover, the advancing British were easy targets for American riflemen.
While the battle lasted only an hour, most of the shooting was done within 20 minutes.
The Battle of New Orleans was an important victory for the U.S.
The battle allowed Americans to end an unhappy war on a powerful, positive note.
The battle unified the country, restored patriotism, and made Andrew Jackson a national hero.