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Contemporary Ethicists/Philosophers

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Tiffany Bondoc

on 27 September 2017

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Transcript of Contemporary Ethicists/Philosophers

Contemporary Ethicist/Philosopher
A Brief Biography
May 5, 1818-Born in Prussia
Studied Law, but interested in sociopolitical theories at the University of Berlin
Involved with "
Young Hegelians
"
1841-Received doctorate in University of Jena
Radical politics prevented him from teaching
Pursued journalism
1842-Editor of a liberal newspaper in Cologne
Socialist columns exiled him from Germany and France
Writings talked against capitalism and exploitation of working class
Marxism - A Perspective of Ethics
Alienation of Workers
Immanuel Kant vs. Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Tiffany Bondoc and Chris Villoria
Works Cited
Marx's Greatest Influence: G.W.F. Hegel
1846-Founded a Communist Correspondence Committee with European socialists
1848-Published
The Communist Manifesto
with
Friedrich Engels
Exiled to London
Founded German Workers’ Educational Society
Established a place for the Communist League
Spoke against capitalism and discussed economic theory
1867-Published the first book of
Das Kapital
Died March 14, 1883
Communism and Later Years
German philosopher and socialist who published anti-capitalist works that form the basis of Marxism
Early Life and Influences
Similarities
Disparities
“History - Historic Figures: Karl Marx (1818 - 1883).” BBC, BBC, www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/marx_karl.shtml. Accessed 24 Sept. 2017.
“Karl Marx.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 10 July 2017, www.biography.com/people/karl-marx-9401219. Accessed 24 Sept. 2017.
Wolff, Jonathan. “Karl Marx.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 12 Apr. 2017, plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx/#5.
“Marxist Ethics.” AllAboutWorldview.org, www.allaboutworldview.org/marxist-ethics.htm. Accessed 25 Sept. 2017.
Age-of-the-sage.org. (2017). Karl Marx historical materialism materialist conception of history. [online] Available at: http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/philosophy/history/marx_historical_materialism.html [Accessed 25 Sep. 2017].
Theoretical & Practical Reason
Aim of a moral life: To be good
Ethics=practical certainty in God, freedom & immortality without empirical values to achieve good, duty, & life beyond
Seek happiness individually
Motivated by duty, not inclination
Treat others how you want to be treated
Don't use others for personal benefit
Equal treatment (Kant's Moral Maxims and Marx's Communism
Should not use others for personal benefit & being against capitalism and the exploitation of the working class
Motivated by for personal reasons rather than inclinations such as money
Both have some history in Protestantism
Advocate of Communism
Aim of human life: be free from exploitative capitalism
Believed in individual freedom from the working environment
Seek happiness as a whole via communism or socialism
Motivated by personal reasons, not economical ones
Value is in the labour required to create something
Don't exploit workers for profit
Kant-rationality is the nature of man and should work towards complete rationality; Marx-unrealistic considering real life circumstances
Kant-seek happiness individually; Marx-seek happiness through no class/divisions
Kant's aim in life was to be good; Marx aimed for societal change to eliminate class/divisions
Kant worked under the belief of God being good; Marx rejected religion and all religious institutions
Objects externalize the good qualities of their makers
As automation and technology advance, there is a separation between creator and creation
Workers are alienated from the personal satisfaction of creating objects, and view work as a means of survival
Historical Materialism
True Material Value
Commodity Fetishism
Human thought has evolved to abstract thought and self-awareness
Human history is focused on their material need
Through this need humans have organized themselves into economic and social classes.
The value of an object is not determined by its price
True value comes from the amount of effort and labour put into an object's creation
Profit is just another word for exploitation
Commodities and money are fetishes that block people from seeing truth about exploitation
Capitalism has workers being exploited for profit
Only aspect most people care about is economic
Full transcript