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Age of Exploration & Discovery

AP Euro

Kristin Palomares

on 5 December 2014

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Transcript of Age of Exploration & Discovery

Age of Exploration
God, Glory, & Gold
Tools of Exploration
Leads The Way
Competing Claims In North America
Pilgrim Rap
Pirate Rules
Desire to spread Christianity
Prince Henry
Sparked when he conquered the Muslim city of Ceuta in North Africa
Founded a navigation school
Established a series of trading posts along Africa's western coast
Traded for gold, ivory, & spices
African captives as slaves
Desire to reach Asia
Bartolomeu Dias
Vasco da Gama
Explored Africa's west coast
Sailed around the tip of South Africa
Provided a direct sea route to India
New Monarchs
Wheel Lock
Better Maps
Christopher Columbus
Genoese sailor
Financed by Queen Isabella & King Ferdinand
Made four voyages to the West Indies
Led to a rush to explore Americas
3 min
What do you know about Columbus?
History of the Holidays
5 min
Amerigo Vespucci
Traveled along South America's eastern coast
Claimed land was not part of Asia but a "new" world
German mapmaker named the continent in his honor
Ferdinand Magellan
Inspired by Spanish explorer Balboa who crossed Panama & became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean
First person to sail around the world*
Hernan Cortes
Explored Mexico with the conquistadors
Sparked by rumors of gold & silver
Conquered the Aztec empire with only 600 men, 17 horses, & 10 cannons
In Tenochtitlan, the Aztec emperor, Montezuma II, was convinced that Cortes was a god
Superior weaponry, exploitation of neighboring native groups, & the introduction of smallpox among the natives led to an easy victory
Francisco Pizarro
Conquered the Incan Empire in Western South America
Ambushed 30,000 unarmed men & took prisoner the Incan ruler, Atahualpa
Despite agreeing to fill a room once with gold and twice with silver, Pizarro strangled the Incan king
Captured Cuzco & Potosi = opened silver mines
Actions transferred commercial center to Antwerp
3 min
Motivation 4 Exploration
Building A New Empire
When conquering the Muslims, the Spanish lived among them & imposed their culture upon them
Peninsulares = Spanish settlers in the Americas
Mestizo = a person of mixed Spanish & Native American ancestry
Natives farmed, ranched, or mined the land for Spanish landlords
Holders of system promised they would act fairly & respect the workers
In reality, it was forced labor
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
Spoke out against the cruel treatment of the natives & the encomienda system
Columbian Exchange
The Atlantic Slave Trade
The English
King James chartered venture to found colony
3 ships and 100 settlers landed in Virginia
Interest in gold, not survival, caused 7 out of 10 people to die
England's first permanent settlement
Turned tobacco into a profitable cash crop
America: The Story of Us
8 min
Founded 2nd English colony, Plymouth
Persecuted for their religious beliefs in England
Sought religious freedom from England's Anglican Church
Wanted to build a model Christian community
Henry Hudson
Englishman in the service of the Dutch
Searched for a northwest sea route to Asia (failed)
Explored three waterways that were later named for him
Established a fur trade with the Iroquois Indians
Led to establishment of the Dutch West India Company
New Netherland = Dutch holdings in North America
France vs. England
French & Indian War
7 Years War
Dispute over landholdings in Ohio
Britain won
France surrendered North American holdings
Jacques Cartier
Giovanni da Verrazzano
Searched for a sea route to the Pacific = failed
Discovered New York harbor
Explored Canada
Named the St. Lawrence River & Montreal
Samuel de Champlain
Sailed up St. Lawrence River
Founded Quebec
New France = base of France's colonial empire
4 min
Treaty of Tordesillas
Pope Alexander VI intervened in the rivalry between Spain & Portugal
Line of Demarcation = imaginary line that divided the world in two
West = Spain
East = Portugal
God, Glory, & Gold
Tools of Exploration (6)
Prince Henry the Navigator
Vasco da Gama
Bartolomeu Dias
Amerigo Vespucci
Taboo Review
Christopher Columbus
Hernan Cortes
Montezuma II
Francisco Pizarro
De Las Casas
Treaty of Tordesillas
Taboo Review
Henry Hudson
Dutch West India Company
New Netherland
de Verrazzano
French & Indian War
Sea Dogs
7 Years' War
Taboo Review
12 min
Crash Course
12 min
Crash Course
*Extra Enrichment
Crash Course: 7 Years' War
12 min
*Extra Enrichment
*Fun Facts
Crash Course: Spanish Empire
11 min
*Extra Enrichment
Sugar & Tobacco
Amerindian Labor
African Labor
Causes of African Slavery
Demand for Africans
Triangular Trade
Slavery In Africa
Existed for centuries
Spread of Islam increased slavery in the 17th century
Muslims justified practice with belief that non-Muslim prisoners of war could be bought or sold as slaves (17 million Africans)
Some legal rights
Immunity to European diseases
Experience in farming
Unfamiliar with New World territory
Visually distinct from Europeans
Atlantic Slave
9.5 million
Taboo Review
Columbian Exchange
Joint-stock Company
Favorable balance of trade
Atlantic slave trade
triangular trade
middle passage
Full transcript