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2. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others in a process of communication
3. The principle part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups.
4. When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes (a) techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very complicated and sometimes very simple, and (b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalation, and attitudes.
5. The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable.
6. A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to law violation over definitions unfavorable to law violation.
7. differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
8. The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all mechanisms involved in any other learning.
9. While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by thoes general needs and values because non-criminal behavior is also an an experssion of the same needs and values. Criticisms of social process theories are many and varied. Perhaps the most potent criticism of association theory is the claim that Sutherland's initial formulation of differential association is not applicable at the individual level because even people who experience an excess of definitions favorable to law violation may still not become criminal and those who rarely associate with recognized deviants may still turn to crime. Life course perspective: is a perspective that draws attention to the fact that criminal behavior tends to follow a distinct pattern across the life cycle.
Age graded theory incorporates the element of social bonds and also stresses the idea of turning points in a criminal career.
The delinquent development approach places an emphasis on desistance and persistence over the life course
Interactional theory points to a weakening of a person's bond to conventional society as the fundamental cause of delinquency The central concepts of social development theories include: criminal careers, the life course, trajectory, turning points, age grading, social capital, human agency, development pathways, life course persisters, persistence, desistance, resilience, cohort, cohort analysis, longitudinal research, and evolutionary ecology 1. Strengthening families in their role of providing guidance and discipline and instilling sound values as the first and primary teacher of children.
2. Supporting core social institutions, including schools, churches, and other community organizations so that they can reduce risk factors and help children develop their full potential
3. Promoting prevention strategies that enhance protective factors and reduce the impact of negative risk factors affecting the lives of young people at risk for high delinquency
4. Intervening immediately and constructively when delinquent behavior first occurs
5. Identifying and controlling a small segment of violent and chronic juvenile offenders
6. Establishing a broad spectrum of sanctions that ensure accountability and a continuum Social development theories have been criticized for definitional issues. What do life course concepts like turning point, pathway, risk factor, persistence, desistance, and criminal career really mean? precise definitions of such concepts are necessary if hypotheses derived from life course theories are to be tested. Some writers have identified "associated problems of how to develop risk/needs assessment devices and how to use these both in fundamental research and in applied research". Social process theories suggest that crime-prevention programs should enhance self-control and build prosocial bonds.
Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is designed to increase effective parenting and is part of the Strengthening America's Families Project. Social Process perspective The first key point Social process perspectives hold that the process through which criminality is acquired, deviant self-concepts are established, and criminal behavior results in active, open-ended, and ongoing throughout a persons life. Types of Social Process Approaches Second Key Point A number of theories can be classified under the social umbrella: social learning theory, social control theory, labeling theory, reintegrative shaming, and dramaturgical perspective. A social learning theory places primary emphasis on the role of communication and social ization in the acquisition of learned patterns of criminal behavior and the values supporting that behavior, whereas a social control theory focuses on the strength of the bond people share with individuals and institutions around them, especially as those relationships shape their behavior. Third Key Point Edwin Sutherland's Nine Principles of Differential Association Policy Implications of Social Process Theories Social process theories suggest that crime-prevention programs should work to enhance self-control and to build prosocial bonds. One program that seeks to build strong prosocial bonds while attempting to teach positive values to young people is the Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP) of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), funded by Congress in 1992 under an amendment to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974. Prosocial Bond A bond between the individual and the social group that strengthens the likelihood of conformity. Prosocial bonds are characterized by attachment to conventional social institutions,values, and beliefs. Critique of Social Process Theories Fourth Key Point Perhaps the most potent criticism of association theory is the claim that Sutherland's initial formulation of differential association is not applicable at the individual level because even people who experience an excess of definitions favorable to law violation may still not become criminal and those who rarely associate with recognized deviants may still turn to crime The Labeling approach does little to explain the origin of crime and deviance The Social Development Perspective Fifth Key Point Over the past 25 years and appreciation for the process of human development has played a increasingly important role in understanding criminality. Students of human development recognize that the process of development occurs through reciprocal dynamic interactions that take place between individuals and various aspects of their envionment and the social development perspective posits that development, which begins at birth(and perhaps even earlier), occurs primarily within a social context. Unlike social learning theory, social development sees socialization as only one feature of that context Human Development The relationship between the maturing individual and his or her changing environment, as well as the social processes that the relationship entails Social Development Perspective An integrated view of human development that examines multiple maturational levels, including psychological, biological, familial, interpersonal, cultural, societal, and ecological, simultaneously Concepts in Social Development Theories Sixth Key Point Most theories of social development recognize that a critical transitional period occurs as a person moves from childhood to adulthood, and life course theorists have identified at least seven developmental tasks that American adolescents must confront: 1. establishing identity 2. cultivating symbolic relationships 3. defining physical attractiveness 4. investing in a value system 5. obtaining an education 6. separating from family and achieving independence, and 7. obtaining and maintaining gainful employment. Policy Implications of Social Development Theories Seventh Key Point The OJJDP's adopted the social development model as the foundation for its Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders program, which provides participating communities with a framework for preventing delinquency, intervening in early delinquent behavior, and responding to serious, violent, and chronic offending. Critique of Social Development Theories Eighth Key Point Social development theories have been criticized for definitional issues. What do life course concepts like turning point, pathway, risk factor, persistence, desistance, and criminal career really mean? Precise definitions of such concepts are necessary if hypotheses derived from life course theories are to be tested.