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Inferno Cantos 4-8
Transcript of Inferno Cantos 4-8
Circle Five, The Wrathful and the Sullen Circle Five: The Wrathful and Sulllen
The Circle Six: The Fallen Angels Circle Three: The Gluttons Circle Two: The Carnal Limbo and the Virtuous Pagans - Sinless people who weren't baptized or knew God before the coming of Christ - Famous Sinners: - Castle with 7 walls, 7 gates, and a moat - Dante is fearful upon seeing a glimpse of his coming journey. (stanza 15) - Insights from Virgil - guided by other 4 poets - Dante and the poets entering the castle - allusion (stanza 55) - answers question of afterlife for non-christians and shows the first layer of emotion in the inferno Circle Four •Those who hoarded and wasted are punished here.
•Priests and popes and cardinals
•A great abyss filled with the sinners. Dante and Virgil watch them battle from the ledge of the abyss.
•The sinners are locked in eternal battle within the abyss, the hoarders vs. the wasters. They roll enormous weights against each other over and over.
•Dante sees the Hoarders and the Wasters punishing each other with the enormous weights. Souls are unrecognizable.
•Dante pities sinners
•Virgil’s Insights: No one can stop their journey, the greedy are dim and unrecognizable, and Dame Fortune.
•Virgil Teaches: Cannot pity sinners, Dame Fortune is unpredictable
• Simile: “Just as the surge Charybdis hurls to sea/ crashes and breaks upon its countersurge,/ so these shades dance and crash eternally” (Dante VII.22-24) references a whirlpool used in Mythology alongside the cliffs, Scylla. Charybdis was known to swallow huge amounts of water 3 times a day then spew it all out later, creating whirlpools capable of pulling entire ships under water. This simile creates a sense of chaos and shows the reader the extent of the shades’ crashing around.
•Image: “Here, too, I saw a nation of lost souls,/far more than were above: they strained their chests/against enormous weights, and with mad howls/rolled them at one another. They in haste/they rolled them back, one party shouting out: ‘Why do you hoard?’ and the other: ‘Why do you waste?’” (Dante VII. 25-30) is the section that most vibrantly describes the scene that is before Dante. You can easily image the battle raging in the Fourth Circle.
•This canto shows how the sinners are in direct combat with one another in order to serve equal punishments for the crimes they have committed. This shows that punishment doesn’t have to come from monsters and creatures of Hell, but even just other sinners. There are no friends in Hell. Circle Five •The wrathful and the sullen are punished here.
•It is the Marsh of Styx, comprised of a black spring and foul slime
•Dante sees: wrathful fighting in sludge, sullen trapped and singing under sludge of Styx.
•No pity – Dante is very focused and concentrated
•Virgil explains the circle - the sullen could not see the light, and the wrathful fight
•Virgil teaches Dante not to pity
•Image: “And I, intent on all our passage touched,/made out a swarm of spirits in that bog/ savage with anger, naked, slime-besmutched./They thumped at one another in that slime/with hands and feet, and they butted, and they bit/as if each would tear the other limb from limb” (Dante VII.109-114). This passage is very rich visually, because Dante is explaining the things he sees when he is focusing on every single detail of his journey. He is intent on gaining all he can from the journey, so he is very descriptive in these lines.
•At the end of Canto VII, they have entered the Fifth Circle, but Dante has not yet seen his political rival, Filippo Argenti. Therefore, this is not yet the section in which Dante displays hatred which Virgil condones, but at this point, he no longer pities the sinners. Circle Five •Still Circle Five, in Styx, with the wrathful and the sullen
•Filippo Argenti is one of the wrathful. He was of the Adimari family, political rivals of Dante.
•The slime and sludge of Styx
•Sludge holds the sullen forever beneath its surface, because in life they refused to see the Sun and God’s Light and are therefore held in darkness forever.
•Phlegyas is the Boatman of Styx, and he is angered by the fact that Dante is not of the dead, but he still must give them a ride.
•Dante sees a Great Tower from which flames shoot as signals, which summon Phlegyas, and in the river he sees political rival Argenti. After he asks for Argenti to be attacked, he watches the cruel mangling of him by the other wrathful sinners.
•Dante’s main concern in the circle is that Argenti suffers greatly at the hands of the other wrathful – first step of change
•Virgil tells Dante that he should wish pain upon the sinners because it is deserved.
•Image: “And shortly after, I saw the loathsome spirit/so mangled by a swarm of muddy wraiths/that to this day I praise and thank God for it” (Dante VIII. 55-57) Shows one of the most pivotal moments in Dante’s journey; the moment when he turns from pity to anger and wishes further punishment against a rival. Virgil praises these emotions in Dante, and fuels them by fulfilling his wish to see Argenti harmed.
•This canto holds the moment when Dante truly embraces his journey and becomes a part of it, rather than an onlooker. Previously, he pitied all the souls trapped in their punishments, but from this moment onward he knows that they deserve their circles and no longer feels sadness for them. Circle 6 •The Fallen Angels are punished here
•Dis is described as the metropolis of Hell, with glowing red iron mosques in the valley and gates that separate Upper and Lower Hell.
•Dante sees the glowing red mosques of Dis, the moat they must cross to enter, the shades of the angels fallen from Heaven, and he sees Virgil in pain after the angels try to forbid his entrance.
•Dante worries that he will never return to the world, and that Virgil will leave him alone to fend for himself.
•Virgil tells Dantes that because God gave Dante his mission, nothing can keep them from completing it, and that he must trust in both Virgil and God to lead him. He tells Dante that no matter what the sinners in Hell attempt, they have to keep going and complete the journey, because God is coming down to help them, and he will open all the gates.
•Simile: Dante tells Virgil, “ ‘Master, I already see/ the glow of its red mosques, as if they came/ hot from the forge to smolder in this valley’” (Dante VIII.67-69). This is in reference to the very depths of Hell, the forge, and the fact that Dis holds the smoldering results of Hell, because this is where the upper and lower halves are separated. All of the fires of Hell are held in Dis, so it makes sense that Dante references a forge in Dis.
•Image: “I could not hear my Lord’s words, but the pack/ that gathered round him suddenly broke away/howling and jostling and went pouring back,/ slamming the towering gate hard in his face./ That great Soul stood alone outside the wall./ Then he came back; his pain showed in his pace./ His eyes were fixed on the ground, his brow/ had sagged from its assurance. He sighed aloud:/ ‘Who has forbidden me the halls of sorrow?’” (Dante VIII. 109-117). This section shows Virgil as a vulnerable figure, when the angels attempt to hinder the journey and shut him out. It makes Virgil seem mortal, as a scorned figure showing pain.
•This section is exceedingly important because Dis separates Upper and Lower Hell. While they have not yet entered Lower Hell, Virgil and Dante already see the vast difference between the sinners in the two parts, and must try to advance past those who wish to stop their journey. Ciacco "The Hog" "Here monstrous Cerberus, the ravening beast, howls through his triple throats like a mad dog over the spirits sunk in that foul paste" (Alighieri 45).
-simile hints that Dante views Cerberus as at least partially human The End. Those who sinned by excess of sexual passion. Dante begins his journey into Hell proper. Famous Sinners Here: Semiramis, Dido, Tristan Dante calls to them in the name of love to stop their flight and tell him their story.
Giovanni Malatesta had a political marriage with Francesca. But she fell in love with his younger brother Paolo.
Paolo was married to another woman with two daugthers at the time of the affair.
Legends grew that there was a mix up at the wedding. This, however, does not free the sinners from guilt.
"Caïna waits for him who took our lives'" (Dante V: 104). Dante and Virgil come upon Minos. Creature from mythology, king of Crete whose wisdom and justice in life made him judge of the dead after death.
Each sinner comes and confesses their sins to Minos and he wraps his tail around them to decide which circle of Hell they belong to.
Dante wanted to emphasize how the sinners choose their Hell and its punishments by an act of their own will.
Dante altered Mino's original form into a hideous monster with a tail to symbolize the guilty consciences of the souls making their confessions. Location The entire circle is dark and there is a constant roaring sound of winds.
The air here is murky to symoblize the clouding of their reason becasue of their passion.
The strong winds symbolize their lust. Punishment Lightest punishment of all in Hell proper, because it is often linked with love.
Forever swept about in the wirlwinds of Hell.
Denied the light and reason of God. Paolo and Francesca Helen, Paris, Cleopatra Achilles Storm of putrefaction falls -huge hailstones, dirty water, black snow, putrid slush -ravenous 3-headed dog guards the people Cerberus -fellow Florentine man
-delivers political prophesy (first of many throughout Inferno) Homer, Horace, Ovid, Lucin, Virgil
Adam, Eve, David, Moses, Abraham, Sarah, Ruth
Lucretia, Julia, Marcia, Cornelia
Socrates, Plato, Democritus represents nobility
7 walls/gates represent 7 liberal arts or 7 virtues emotions give a glimpse of the terrors of hell
tells Dante the history of the first circle Dante after hearing their stroy is so overcome with compassion that he faints again. castle and meadows - lady fingers and green M&Ms
windy circle - vanilla pudding whirled with blue chocolate
garbage - pudding with chocolate chips and marshmallows
Rolling weights - white oreos
Sludge of Styx - Chocolate pudding
Red Glowing Mosques - cake mixed with red chocolate