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Copy of World History
Transcript of Copy of World History
period The Five Relationships ren - humanity Li - ritual Junzi - ideal person + = Laozi, the legendary founder of Daoism, was born at 60 years old and promptly tried to escape the chaos of Warring States China on a water buffalo On the way, he wrote the Daodejing Wuwei - no unnecessary action magic alchemy immortality + = Qin Shi Huangdi unified China after the Warring States measurements law written language government Although Qin's reign only lasted 12 years, his standardization of China led braced it for the future circa 220 BCE The Han Dynasty (200BCE-200CE) State bureaucracy civil service exams led to entry into the bureaucracy State Confucianism civil service exams were based on Confucian texts 5 Classics Analects The Indus River supported complex civilizations. sometimes called Harappan culture Mohenjo-daro is an advanced city circa 2600 BCE Harappan culture shows traces of the religion that would later be called Hinduism though this is debated Aryan Migration
1600-1000BCE Aryans mixed with the local populations, resulting in the foundations of modern Indian culture kshatriyas - warriors and kings Sanskrit as the written language Sacred books called the Vedas The Epics Ramayana Mahabharata Caste System The key foundations of Indian culture Buddha brahmin (priests) vaisyas - merchants sudras - laborers discovered throuh the sacred sound, Aum bhakti (much later) 4 Noble Truths 8-fold Path 1. Life = suffering
2. Suffer comes from attachment
3. To end suffering, end attachment.
4. To end attachment, follow: Wisdom - Ethics - Concentration View + Intention Speech + Action + Livelihood Effort + Mindfulness + Concentration Nirvana are primarily religious Nanda Dynasty was among the first, large empires that controlled vast swaths of land Maurya Empire founder: Chandragupta Chandragupta was able to move westward quickly due to the withdrawal of Alexander the Great In its early history, India was ruled by many small kingdoms 320-180BCE Classical Greece S P A A Forced to drink poisonous hemlock, Socrates died in 399 BCE That's about 100 years after Confucius lived And about 100 years after Buddha lived Socrates stressed balance, which would influence his most famous student, Plato Plato's philosophy: the allegory of the cave Plato believed that reality could only be determined by logical reasoning, by philosophy Plato most famous student, Aristotle, disagreed Aristotle took a more scientific approach to understanding reality In fact, modern science owes a tremendous debt to Aristotle's empirical method Aristotle set out to categorize all aspects of reality. Poetry Plants Animals Music Aristotle, inheriting the teachings of Socrates and Plato, passed them on to his most famous student: Alexander the Great But it wasn't all philosophy Sparta v Athens e
r s Military oligarchy Helots Battle of Thermopylae Direct democracy Pericles - persuaded Athenians and helped found the Athenian empire and the Delian League later, this empire would fend off the first Persian attack at Marathon Persian, as in Ah! B's in SAP Emphases on art proportion Philosophy SPAA Olives and Grapes Often called the cradle of western civilization Alexander the Great, one of the best military leaders in history, spread Greek thought with him as he conquered See the red line? 431-404BCE that was Alexander's path of butt-kicking and culture-spreading 336-323 BCE He stopped at the western edge of India Rome Republic Empire The Roman Forum was the center of Roman government America is an example of a republic In times of military crisis, a dictator would take charge. The Senate oversaw much of Rome's govermental business politics culture architecture key foreign relations In the Roman empire, the Senate was rendered essentially worthless Despite the crazy emperors The Romans had codified law that applied to all members of society, even the law enforcers The laws were adapted to meet the needs of the various local cultures The Emperor's main goal was to keep the people happy Roman religion was an amalgamation of religions of conquered peoples, especially the Greeks Though the Emperor was treated as a god arch arch arch arch arch aqueduct the arch allowed for bigger buildings so did concrete arches and concrete helped Romans build aqueducts, which transported water over long distances Roads helped the Romans quickly send troops wherever they were needed mosiacs depicted scenes of hunts, conquests, myths, and sexuality After Nero's intense persecution of Christians, the small sect gained popularity Constantine legalized Christianity in 313 CE with the Edict of Milan The Romans were crazy about Chinese silk, obtained through trade on the silk road Rome occupied Judea and, in 70 CE, destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem, forever altering Judaism. Note the Menorah in the Arch of Titus The sheer size of the empire had repercussions everywhere, especially when the empire collapose Here are two exceptional examples Date you should know! Date you should know! Split In 320s CE, Constantine split the empire into two halves the western half was centered in Rome the eastern half was centered in Constantinople Really, really old: 1700 BCE The Ancient Israelites were a small group of nomadic peoples. Exact dates are hard to come by, but the early parts of the bible may have taken place around 1000BCE. Their religion helped them keep a unique identity and helped prevent them from assimilating to nearby, polytheistic cultures MONOTHEISM The story of Abraham is the mythic beginning of the Israelites monotheism Isaac aka Israel Jacob Twelve sons = Twelve Tribes Before having Isaac, Abraham had another son, Ishmael, with his wife's servant, Hagar When Isaac came along, he sent them away Judah Orgins of the term "Jew" Levi 9 others Joseph Abraham Isaac had two sons, Easau and Jacob. Jacob was younger, but smarter than his brother. Jacob tricked Esau into giving up Esau's inheritance associated with the priestly class you may have heard of his amazing technicolor dreamcoat Moses Military
leader Led Israelites out of Egypt this event is known as the Exodus The Exodus was the birth of the Nation of Israel The Israelites were united by their religion primarily, but also by Moses' leadership After wandering the desert for 40 years, they settled in an inhabited land called Canaan Under the leadership of Joshua, the Israelites took over Canaan Joshua David Political figure Religious figure David was the first king (sanctioned by God) over a united Israel The Bible portrays David as a great military leader, totally devoted to God. His weaknesses are also described in detail. As the first king appointed by God Himself, David has a special place in Jewish history He was the first "Messiah," or "Anointed One," because he was anointed with oil as a sign of his kingship. United only lasted through David's son, Solomon After Solomon, the kingdom divided into North and South Solomon built the First Temple, the house of God on earth, the center of the Israelite world. Exile Assyrian First temple Destroyed 10 tribes lost Judah was the largest of the remaining tribes, hence the term Jew Babylonians 587 BCE Babylonians allowed the Jews to rebuild their Temple Second Temple Period 70 CE Jesus The destruction of the Temple had profound effects on Israelite history. This lead to the near permanent state of Jewish Exile and the development of Rabbinical Judaism, the dominant form of modern Judaism Romans Destroy the Temple What started a minor Jewish sect took on global importance when it spread to the Mediterranean Southern Mesopotamia Meanwhile, in Northern Mesopotamia... Ashoka converted to Buddhism and sent missionaries all over Southeast Asia Collapse 476 CE Date you should know! The Western half of the Roman Empire fell after a long period of decline Continuity The Eastern portion of the empire carried on. Despite an attempt by Emperor Justinian, the two halves were never reunited The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire Are you sure? Ancient Israel As in, Ah! B's in SAP Very close to Buddha's life And Confucius Remember the Persians? He took them down right about here Western Europe:
The Middle Ages The Byzantine Empire King Lords Knights Serfs and Peasants Cardinals Bishops Priests Pope Two institutions defined Medieval society Political Religious Warrior Kings Clovis (late 5th century CE) Charles "the Hammer" Martel (8th century CE) Charles the Great, aka Charlemagne (early 9th C, CE) All consolidated their power by linking with the Christian Church Feudalism Lords are granted Manors, which they own The lords sponsored Knights, warriors (hopefully) bound by the code chivalry. Kings relied on the lord's knights in wars. The Code of Chivalry dictated the knights care for the weak and defenseless. This is a bit idealistic. Most likely, this Code was designed to keep these highly trained warriors from running amok Far outnumbered the people above them Evolved naturally after the Fall of Rome (476CE), when poor farmers surrendered their land for protection of wealthy landowners Christianity filled the gap left by the collapse of Rome The spiritual authority of the entire Catholic Church The Pope's word was considered spiritual authority Acts as advisory body to the Pope Enforces the orders of the Pope to all the priests Oversees the priests in a large geographic area Brings the edicts of the Pope to the common people By following the word of the Pope, the priests help establish cultural unity across the Medieval Christian world Styled himself "Holy Roman Emperor" by establishing close ties with the Church The Church dominated Medieval culture Monasteries provided healthcare, spiritual and physical protection. They were also the sole guardians of Greco-Roman culture in the West Music and art was relatively simple; for example, Gregorian Chant Emperor Justinian Helped consolidate the Byzantine Empire's power Made a codified set of laws that united and organized the government and the society The state bureaucracy was large and byzantine and helped the Byzantine Empire last for 10 centuries think of Rome! Expanded Empire's territory Tried to reconquer the Western half of the Roman empire, but failed Built the Hagia Sophia and helped solidify Constantinople as a bastion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity The era the followed Alexander's conquests was called Hellenism, after the spread of Hellenistic–aka Greek–culture. The Arabian Peninsula I S l m a Shahadah There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger Reciting the Shahadah is necessary to convert to Islam. It asserts monotheism (no god but Allah) and unity to the group of Muslims (Muhammad is his messenger) Salat Prayer is offered 5 times a day, regardless of what you are doing Even during chaotic or dangerous times, such as revolutions. In this photo, Egyptian Christians encircle Egyptian Muslims so that the Muslims can pray safely. Zakat The practice of almsgiving is required of all Muslims who are able to do so. Fast of Ramadan During Ramadan, the 9 month, of the lunar calendar, all able Muslims fast (food and water) from sunrise to sunset Wars were fought during Ramadan Hajj All able Muslims are required to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Circumambulating the Ka'ba is one of many parts of the Hajj Tribal groups called Bedouins populated the Arabian Peninsula Clan rivalry, often for resources like water, meant that no clan could dominate the peninsula One of the largest cities was Mecca, a trading and pilgrimage site Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 CE That's about 70 years after Clovis And about the same time as the Sui Dynasty in China The Archangel Gabriel dictated the Quran for Muhammad to memorize, since Muhammad could not write Muhammad therefore memorized the Quran, which was dictated in inhumanly beautiful poetic form. Poetry was one of the most respected art forms of the Arabian Peninsula; therefore, the mastery demonstrated in the Quran immediately won many converts. The Meccans, whose main business came from polytheistic religious pilgrimage, were obviously opposed to Muhammad's monotheistic message Muhammad and his early followers fled Mecca and went to a nearby rival city, Yathrib This event is called the Hijra. The Hijra marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar While in Medina, Muhammad gained followers, but his religious message was heretical to local Jews. This led to conflict between the two groups, which the Jews lost. This is one early example of tension among Abrahamic religions Although the Muslims left, there was still conflict with Mecca Jihad-a spritual–or less commonly a physical–struggle against unholy or unrighteous parts of the self After Muhammad moved there, it became known as Medina It happened in 622 CE After some years of struggle, the Muslims finally conquer Mecca–relatively peacefully. Muhammad died in 632 without naming a successor Conflict over succession led to an eventual rift in Islam Sunni - The majority of Islam today. The Sunni believe that Abu Bakr, close friend of Muhammad, should succeed him. He was therefore named Caliph Shia - the minority of Islam today. The Shia reject the first three Caliphs, and argue that only Ali, Muhammad's blood relative, was rightful successor The Quran taught that the Arabs were the descendants of... Under the tenets of Islam and the leadership of Muhammad and Abu Bakr, the Arabs were able to unify into large, fast-growing empires Umayyad Empire Abbasid Empire Ruled between 270-230 BCE The next major empire was the Gupta Empire, founded by Chandra Gupta. It existed about 320-550CE during the decline and fall of Rome Sui Dynasty T a n g D y n a s t y S o n g D y n a s t y 660-750 CE The Umayyad Empire lasted only 90 years, but it spread Muslim influence rapidly Non-Muslims and Muslim converts (Mawali) were forced to pay jizya, the non-believer tax Mawali could not share the booty taken in conquests, nor could they have political power The promise of riches outside the relatively arid Arabian Peninsula inspired the rapid expansion As a result, few people converted to Islam under the Umayyads. There were, however, many "people of the book," or dhimmi. Fast conquest + Power and wealth they did not share = Opulant, lazy rulers The caliphate in Cordoba, Spain lasted until c. 1000 CE, and enjoyed unprecedented popularity and religious tolerance. 750-1260 CE Annoyed by the excesses of the Umayyads, the Abbasids revolted, establishing a long-lasting and powerful empire The Abbasids moved the capital to Baghdad Baghdad was near the ancient Persian capital Unsurprisingly, Persians later came to dominate the Abbasid empire Politics Trade Religion At it's height, the Abbasid Empire was huge. As happened with the Umayyads, the Abbasid Empire became wealthy. The leaders lived so oppulantly that the cost of maintaining their lifestyles put severe drain on the Empire The size of the Empire brought it into contact with European nations Charlemagne sent emissaries to the Harun al-rashid, one of the most important caliphs. The Abbasid Empire had an extensive trade network They dominated trade on the Indian Ocean And the Silk Road ran through parts of their empire Their dominance in trade helped lead to their wealth Islam spread primarily through trade, not conflict Mawali gained more equal rights and exemptions from taxes; therefore, many people converted All aspects of religion flourished under the Abbasids Religious tolerance The Abbasids looked to Classical Greece and Rome for mathematical and scientific developments A Thousand and One Arabian Nights Understanding nature was a way of understanding Allah Geometric patterns were exploited, partially because Allah or Muhammad could not be depicted Mosques become more elaborate Cordoba Tunisa Harun al-Rashid neglected to name a successor Civil War The sons of the victor, al-Ma'mun, decided to build personal armies, gearing up for the next civil war These mercenary armies, made up of Turkic speaking slaves, soon became a powerful force in Abbasid politics There was often conflict with the Byzantine Empire Excessive taxation, pillaging villages, famine led to rebellions because of the trouble in Baghdad, some caliphs tried to make new capitals Abbasids are too concerned with their internal struggles Buyids The Buyids capture Baghdad, and reduce the Abbasid caliphate to puppets Seljuk Turks lay the foundation for the Ottoman Empire The Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad, and reduce the Abbasid caliphate to puppets Don't forget, the Buyids were really in control for about 90 years Wendi reunites North and South China after a period of disunity 589-618CE About 20 years after Justinian died about the same time as the hijra His son, Yangdi, tries (but fails) to extend the empire and wastes money on luxuries. He's assassinated in 618CE Although the Sui Dynasty did not last long, it set the stage for a revitalized, unified China 618-907 CE During this period, Charles "the Hammer" Martel and Charlemagne were uniting "barbarian" tribes 960-1279 CE Simultaneously, the Arab Empires were rising rapidly. Roughly concurrent with the Abbasid Empire Politics Religion State Bureaucracy Civil service exams revived Scholar gentry > aristocracy A jinshi is one who has passed the civil service exam. Jinshi were high status Buddhism Chan Brought to China by Bodhidharma, an Indian missionary Chan is based on meditation Pure Land A realm in which one can meditate without distraction, and acheive Nirvana in one lifetime Mahayana Mahayana means "Greater vehicle" or "Wider Path" Empress Wu patronized Buddhism more than any other Chinese leader Xuanzong becomes obsessed with his mistress, Yang Guifei His obession with Yang Guifei led to conflict at the imperial court. This led to revolts, alliances with nomadic peoples, and decline Expanded territory Neo-Confucianism revival of Confucian thought; in some ways, Confucianism was interpreted more strictly women were more tightly controlled rejection of foreign influences, particularly Buddhism Trade junks: long-distance trade, protection against enemy ships, and advanced navigation techniques (compass, maps) Interacted with Islamic Empires and Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire Art Landscape paintings Li Bai - famous poet Technology Japan These characters mean "The Origin of the Sun" and hint at Japan's early relationship with China 1. They're in Chinese 2. Japan is east of China, meaning that to the Chinese, Japan is towards where the sun rises Japan is first mentioned in a Chinese source from the Han Dynasty. By the time of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Japan is highly influence by China Shinto - Japanese Indigenous Religion Creation story - Japan was created out of the water by two forces, male and female, pictured below They gave birth to the Japanese islands, as well as the kami Kami are somewhere between gods and spirits. They inhabit different parts of nature, such as mountains, rocks, or trees. The rope shows that a kami lives here Shinto practices revolve around ritual purity, similar to Judaism Unlike Judaism, however, there is no core scripture to Shintoism. Rather, it is a tradition passed down from generation to generation. The Taika Reforms are the best example of this influence. The Taika Reforms were reforms based on Confucian values; the reforms also unified Japan under one emperor, similar to the Chinese system During the Taika Reform, the Japanese adopted the Chinese writing system, Chinese literary styles, Chinese religion, and Chinese architecture. These influences can still be seen today This is Japanese for "Happy Birthday." Recognize the Chinese characters? The Taika Reforms also led to the increasing influence of Buddhism in Japan The Buddhist clergy eventually became powerful enough to challenge the Imperial House. To escape the Buddhist influence, the capital was moved to Heian, modern Kyoto. During the Heian period, aristocratic families vied for power. Among these families, the Fujiwara were most successful, largely due to marriages with the Imperial family This power struggle led to the next era in Japanese history, which is quite similar to European feudalism Feudal Japan 1200-1868 Isolationism Kamakura period Tokugawa (Edo) Period Societal Structure Medieval Japanese society was similar to Medieval European society in many ways, with one important difference: the Japanese Emperor was a figurehead with very little power the Shogun or military dictators had the real power Daimyo the were regional warlords. Although they were subordinate to the shogun, they nevertheless had total authority within their region the Samurai were the warriors of feudal Japan. They had special privileges, such as permission to carry swords, but in return they had to abide by the bushido code and swear loyalty to the daimyo a samurai who failed to adhere to the bushido code was expected to commit seppuku - "gut splitting," ritual suicide. Peasants were at the bottom of the hierarchy. Farmers were highest ranking peasants, craftsmen were next. Merchants, like in China, were lowest. Bakufu this system was called government. Baku means tent, so the term "bakufu" government hints at the importance of military (tent) leaders The Kamakura period began when the Minamoto clan (a shogun family) defeated the rival Taira clan. The Minamoto established their government in Kamakura. Although the Minamoto were the dominate shogunate during the Kamakura period, they did not achieve absolute power. Thus, the period saw several conflicts between families vying for control. The Mongols attempted to invade in 1271 and 1284 Both invasions were stopped by a storm. The Japanese called this kamikaze, or divine wind. The kamikaze contributed to a sense of Japanese specialness. The threat of Mongol invasion from China kept the Japanese on high alert. The cost of their preparedness put a huge strain on the Kamakura economy. the expense of military readiness plus a fight over succession to the throne caused the collapse of the Kamakura period Several periods followed the Kamakura, but the next one that we'll discuss is the Edo period During the Kamakura period, Buddhism flowed from China to Japan, resulting in a fourishing of Japanese Buddhism 1185-1333 Just after the Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, towards the end of the Abbasid Empire. Just before the Black Death in Western Europe, and near the end of the Song Dynasty Zen evolved from Chinese Chan Buddhism. Recall that Chan traces itself back to the Buddha himself The general goal of Zen schools is to use various tools to achieve satori-an understanding of the world as it truly is. seated meditation haiku koans old pond . . .
a frog leaps in
water’s sound Two monks were watching a flag flapping in the wind. One said to the other, "The flag is moving."
The other replied, "The wind is moving."
Huineng overheard this. He said, "Not the flag, not the wind; mind is moving." 1603-1868 The Tokugawa Period is so known because the Tokugawa family were the shogun in charge Europe is well into the Age of Exploration and beginning the Scientific Revolution 15 years after Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Japan One year before America completes the Transcontinental Railroad During the Tokugawa Period, Japanese social structure solidified, with each class becoming more clearly delineated from the others. The stability of the Tokugawa period caused an increase in cultural activities - many Japanese now had leisure time to pursue art and studies. Studies were largely of Confucianism Politically, the Tokugawa were strict isolationists, even kicking out Christian missionaries who had been in Japan since the late 1500s. and forcing any remaining Christians to convert America wasn't even born yet