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Police Powers: Carding

Crime and Criminal Justice - Police Powers
by

Sabrina Abreu

on 20 October 2014

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Transcript of Police Powers: Carding

Police Powers: Is the Police Practice of "Carding"
Canadian and US Police Timeline
Are police generally racist?-
Most crime, 80%, is caused by males under the age of 30. Females cause less than 20% of crime, though female rates are higher when it comes to shoplifting, writing bad cheques and credit card fraud.
From trafficking to terrorism-
Police forces use organized crime methods to conduct their business, but their powers derive from their status as formal social institutions.
Police Brutality: Intentions vs. Reasons
an appprioate tool for policing
or a charter violation?
racial profiling.
Organized crime.
police recruitment.
1800s
- Police officers maintained order and made arrests, but the often circumvented their responsibilities

1829
- The police system was established in England by Robert Peel, hence the description of the "Peel Regional Police"

1834
- First full-time High Constable in Toronto, Ontario

1837
- First uniforms, which were forest green

1845
- The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was founded, then in 1904, the federal services name was changed to
Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNMP)

1877
- Constables Act of Ontario, governing the Ontario Provincial Police and county police services (with amendments in 1922); first introduced to allow the formation of constables who provided law and order in the towns and cities of early years of Ontario
1880
-First police benefit fund.The first beneficiary, who resigned from the service due to ill health, received $29.64 a month for the rest of his life.

1886
– First two African American police officers: Robert William Stewart and Roy Green are hired by the Los Angeles Police Department.

1893
– The New York Times uses “police brutality” for the first time to describe the beating of a civilian by an officer

1900s
– Radio and motorized communications appear

1907
– Berkeley’s department was the first to use blood, fiber, and soil analysis in investigations

1907
- First parking ticket issued (there were only 1,500 cars in all of Ontario)

1910-1920s
– First women police officer and deputy sheriff are are hired but are given no power to make arrests
1920
- The
Royal Northwest Mounted Police
merged with the Dominion Police to become the current
Royal Canadian Mounted Police

1921
– The lie detector was invented

1924
– The fingerprint classification system was developed

1932
– FBI inaugurated the forensic laboratory

Late 1940s
– Radar was introduced to traffic law enforcement

1944
- Municipal Act of Ontario, the government decided to change the law once again in 2012 to provide more safer qualities within the government - governing smaller police forces in villages, towns and cities; it also allowed the contracting of the OPP for local policing needs

1946
- Police Act of Ontario was introduced to define the role of all police forces in Ontario
1948
- Police Pensions Act

16 February 1968
- 911 is created and the first 911 phone call is made by Alabama Speaker of the House, Rankin Fite, and was received by Haleyville City Hall to U.S. Representative, Tom Bevill.

1970
- Female officers joined the Mounted Branch

1970s and 1980s
– Female police officers were assigned to patrol duty and crime investigation

Jan 28 1970
- Uniform: First British Police Officer to wear turban - Kenya-born Special Constable Harbans Singh JABBAL at East Ham

1971
– The United States Police Canine Association is formed

1990
– Police Services Act of Ontario

1994
– CompSat, a crime tracker, is put into function.
Police Today - Police Services Act, 1990

Police duties are defined in legislation, and Section 42(1) of the Police Services Act in Ontario is representative of what is contained in legislation across Canada. This section states: The duties of a police officer include,

(a) Preserving the peace,
(b) Preventing crimes and other offences and providing assistance and encouragement to other persons in their prevention;
(c) Assisting victims of crime;
(d) Apprehending criminals and other offenders and other who may lawfully be taken into custody;
(e) Laying charges and participating in prosecutions;
(f) Executing warrants that are to be executed by police officers and preforming related duties;
(g) Preforming the lawful duties that the chief of police assigns;
(h) In case of a municipal police force and in the case of an agreement under section 10 (agreement for provision of police services by the Ontario Provincial Police), enforcing municipal by-laws;
(i) Completing the prescribed training.
The goal of Organized Crime Enforcement is to identify, disrupt and dismantle criminal organizations.
It has been stated that citizens are more afraid of police officers than terrorists
"I hope you have a permit for your freedom."
Racial profiling occurs in policing when an individual is subjected to differential treatment or greater scrutiny because of negative stereotypes related to their race or other grounds such as religious beliefs, colour, ancestry or place of origin or a combination of these.
Racial Profiling Incident:
Kingston Expermient
In 2003, police officers were given contact cards to fill out (name, race, gender age, ect) for every person they believed was suspicious. For every 91 white skin individuals who were stopped 126 were Aboriginal and 320 were dark skinned. 92.6% of Kingston’s population is white and 0.6% is black but 2.2% were stopped which is a 4x increase.
“Carding”
The name given to the practice of filling out cards that collect information about individuals that who are of interest to the police.
Card registers the individuals name, address, birth date, skin colour age, time place of stop, and reason of stop.
When a person is called by racial slurs that person has been attacked as if they were struck physically.
*
Racial profiling after the fall of the twin towers in Manhattan on September 11, 2001, led to the wrongful arrest of many innocent Arab men of the Islamic faith.
Ottawa
Police Brutality
Canadian Cop Tasers Kid in the Face
London, Ontario
Woman Violently Thrown into Cell Block
Chicago
Agenda for Change
What a police officer can offer is the threat of force. Yet, that rarely creates more of a sense of security, just as carrying handguns is not likely to make us feel any safer.
Police officers are seen as free agents with a substantial amount of authority.
Police officers refer to "racial profiling" as "criminal profiling."
Do females have fewer opportunities for crime?
Discussion Question
Racial profiling in female crimes.
*
CASE - 2002, Robert Pickman was charged with twenty-six counts of first-degree murder involving women from the city’s Downtown Eastside for over a period of 10 years.
*
CASE:
In 2007, the tasering and death of polish immigrant Robert Dziekanski occured at the Vancouver International Airport. Robert Dziekanski was tasered five times by RCMP officers. The four RCMP officers involved apparently talked about what they could write up in their notebooks about the event and each officer presented the same exact information in chronological order in front of the court. The RCMP were not justified in using a taser against the Polish immigrant and that the officers later deliberately misrepresented their actions to investigators.
(Actaul video footage still from the Robert Dziekanski tasering)
In 2006, Staff Sgt. Jack Kelly from Division 23 had instituted a practice of encouragement his officers to write 25 traffic tickets during a work shift and as a reward, allowed the successful officers “25 and out” to go home before the end of their assigned duty.
“25 AND OUT”
Police brutality is the extreme use of excessive force, usually physical, but potentially in the form of verbal attacks and psychological intimidation, by a police officer.
The recent public incidents in which police judgments or actions have been called into question have raised fundamental concerns about police accountability and governance.
Since the assumption is that if the “right” individuals are recruited, we’ll have a better police force, police have put considerable resources into recruitment, even though there are significant questions about the validity of the assumption.
CASE:
June 2010 – meeting of the leaders of the G20 in Toronto, which the planning for the event took over 6 months to organize. It was led by the RCMP, OPP, and the Toronto police force which were heavily criticized for brutality during the arrests and eventually went under public scrutiny by media and human rights activists. The police force pepper sprayed the protesters and ripped off their name tags while they beat the protestors to hid their identities from the public.
Allegations that police lay charges when they are unnecessary to gain social status.
Diversity in policing can be achieved by testing and screening new officers with a better focus on racial attitudes.
Police should refer to completion as part of the description so that race would no longer be the dominant aspect of the description.
Increase in community contact
Confronting racial profiling
"25 and out"
Superintendent Tweedy commented on the “25 and out” service:

“I must state that if the “25 and out” practice is still an existing practice, I direct that it cease immediately. I find it is an affront to the public interest and cannot be condoned as legitimate law enforcement behaviour, where quotas and personal benefits influence the day. It is but a sad example of unacceptable conduct undermining discipline, undermining unit cohesiveness, and contributing to a compromised management and work environment.”
- John Sewell,
Real Story: Police in Canada

Seven or eight criminal arrests a year
One arrest every six or seven weeks
Engage in community contact
Investigation of crimes
Protect and serve the community
What Police Officers Are Expected to Do?
What Police Officers Actually Do?
Racial profiling
Increase organized crime
Violent brutality towards citizens
Use of force when unnecessary
Use a badge as a protection for murder
Do you believe the officer's actions are justified?
The Outcome?
Excessive Force
Indiana
In your opinion, are any of the discussed listed topics :
Carding
Excessive Force
Brutality
Tasering
Racial Profiling
an appropriate policing tool or a violation of the charter?
The Charter of Rights and Freedoms
s. 1 Guarantee of Rights and Freedoms
reasonable limits to be justified in a free and democratic society
s.2 Fundamental Freedoms
2 (b)(c)
s. 6 Mobility Rights
2(b) to pursue the gaining of a livelihood in any province.
s. 7 Legal Rights
right to life, liberty & security
s. 15 Equality Rights
subsection (1) & (2)


References
Bayley, David H.. Police for the future.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Print

Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982.
Legislative Services Branch. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2014. <http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/const/page-15.html>.

Goff, Colin. Criminal Justice in Canada.
6 ed. Toronto: ITP Nelson, 1997. Print.

Sewell, John. Police in Canada: the real
story. Toronto, ON: J. Lorimer & Co., 2010. Print.
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