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Photosynthesis

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by

Lia Fiore

on 4 November 2015

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Transcript of Photosynthesis

6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
NASA used a Terra Satellite and MOTIS imaging system to measure the global net productivity of land plants
Chloroplast

Light-Dependent
Reaction
Light-Independent
Reaction
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
Climate Change: High Tempatures, Drought
NASA documented a significant decline in global net plant productivity
Years 2000- 2010 was the warmest decade since global instrumental documentation of climate began in the 1880s.
Result: Global Net Carbon Dioxide Increase
Interesting Facts
The Process of Photosynthesis is estimated to have been developed 450,000,000 years ago.

Chloroplasts are believed to have evolved from cyanobacterial-like organisms.
6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
Products of Photosynthesis:
Light-Dependent
Reaction
Light-Independent Reaction
Photosynthesis Review:

6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
6CO + 6H O C H O + 6O
2
2
Sun Light Energy
6
6
12
2
This equation is often considered to be the most important chemical reaction in history.
3 Requirements of Photosynthesis:

Water
Sunlight
Carbon Dioxide
Light-Dependent Reaction
Light-Dependent Reaction
Light-Independent Reaction
Chloroplasts are organelles found within plant cells.

The outer membrane is a smooth membrane covering the surface of the organelle
Inner
Thylakoid Membrane

The chloroplast matrix between the thylakoid and outer membrane is called the
Stroma
.
The Thylakoid Membrane carries out the light reactions of photosynthesis
The dark reactions occur in the stroma
Lamellae
connect two or more grana together
The Thylakoid Membrane is the site of light absorption.
Chlorophyll
Pigment molecules
Accessory pigments
Enzymes
Electron transport systems
Thylakoids are coin-shaped disks that form stacks of structures called
Grana
.
Photosystem 11
Cytochrome Complex
Photosystem 1
Phase 1 - Carbon Fixation
Phase 2 -
Reduction
Phase 3 -
Regeneration
There are 4 protein complexes involved in the Light Reactions
A
Photon
from the sun hits
Chlorophyll
Pigment molecules. Electrons absorb energy from the photon and the electrons get excited, this called
Photoexcitation.
PS11
Photon
Photosystem 11 is made up of approximately 900 different chemicals and about 30 different chlorophyll molecules.
Water Splitting
Water Splitting biproducts:
*Reason we can Breath
Water
All energized electrons from PS11 have been picked up by an electron carrier and are headed towards the next protein complex.
PS11
PS11
PS11
PS11
PS11
Water
H
H
H
EC
EC
Energized Electrons on Electron Carrier
H
H
Oxygen
Part of the
ATP Synthesis
NAD+ Reductase
Energized Electrons on Electron Carrier
PS11
PS1
H
H
2 Main Functions:
Intermediary between PS11 and PS1
Uses energy from the excited electron to pump Hydrogen ions into the thylakoid
PS11
PS1
Autotrophs
Heterotrophs
Makes and stores carbohydrates in cells
Uses energy stored in plants to live
Uses energy stored in Animals to live
Oxygen released in Photosynthesis
Provides Oxygen for Organisms
Produces Atmospheric Oxygen
Consumes Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
Chemical Energy
Oxygen Formation

Electrons Get Re-Energized
NADPH
NADPH is a carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from
the Thylikoid into the stroma to be used in the Calvin Cycle.

A Chloroplast's main function is to capture energy
from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy.


reduced ferredoxin + NAD+ oxidized ferredoxin + NADH + H+
The energy from sunlight excites an electron from it's ground energy level to an excited energy level
Electron acceptors are key to Photoexcitation. The excited electron can move from the initial molecule to the acceptor
Photoexcitation
The
Continues
PS1
PS11
PS1
CO2 is fixed from an inorganic to an organic molecule.
Rubisco is an inefficient enzyme that evolved when CO2 was the primary molecule in our atmosphere.

When plant life increased and O2 levels in the atmosphere increased.

About half of the time, Rubisco began to mistake O2 for CO2.

This mistake results in the toxic product, Phosphoglycolate.

Enzymes evolved to neutralize this product.

Plants have to overcompensate for this common error by increasing the amount of Rubisco within plant cells.

It is estimated that there is about
40 Billion Tons
of Rubisco on Earth.
G3P
Short term
Energy Storage
Structure
Long term Energy Storage
3x
ATP Attaches
NADH from the Light Reactions brings Charged Electrons
ATP
P
P
Electrons
NADH
P
NAD+
G3P
Plants can convert G3P in to Carbohydrates
Ultimate product for plant use
Use 5 G3P to Regenerate 3 RuBP
Make 6 G3P
Start with 3 RuBP
Plant gets 1 G3P
Inefficient because
9 ATP and 6 NADH
were invested
RuBP
CO
2
It is estimated that there is about
40 Billion Tons
of Rubisco on Earth.
Electrons
EC
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