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3. Be able to investigate the physiological effects of exercise on the bodys systems

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Miss Watson

on 29 June 2016

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Transcript of 3. Be able to investigate the physiological effects of exercise on the bodys systems

Types of training
3. Be able to investigate the physiological effects of exercise on the body's systems
Being physically fit is about having enough energy, strength and skill to cope with everyday demands of your environment. Individual fitness levels vary greatly, from low levels required to cope with daily activities to optimal levels required to by some performers at the top of their sport. Improving fitness will improve the physiological functioning of your body.
Method of investigation
Review
Review
P5/M3: collect physiological data to investigate the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and energy systems (with tutor support/ with limited tutor support)
P6: review physiological data collected, describing the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems
M4: review physiological data collected, explaining the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems
D1: independently investigate the physiological effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems
D2: review physiological data collected, analyzing the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems
Aerobic
Resistance
Circuit
Interval

AEROBIC

Endurance training is a generic term that refers to any low-intensity, long-duration activity such as running, rowing, swimming or cycling that aims to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. There are a number of techniques for developing this fitness component, including continuous and fartlek training.

Continuous training is undertaken at a steady pace. The exercise intensity is submaximal and usually set at around 70% of MHR.

Fartlek training is similar to interval training but less fixed in its work to rest ratios and utilises a variety of terrains and gradients e.g woodland trails, sand dunes, uphill/downhill. The advantage of this type of training is that it mimics the demands of sports such as the high intensity intermittent burst required to keep up with play on the football or hockey pitch.
RESISTANCE


The fitness of muscles relates to their strength, size, power and endurance capacity. To develop muscular strength and endurance, the concept of progressive resistance overload must be applied.

Muscle improvements are gained as they respond and adapt to overload. Progressive resistance overload means that as the muscles strengthen endurance increases, the load against which they are working must be increased periodically for continued gains to be realised.

The training programme may be planned to emphasise muscular strength, muscle bulk, muscular endurance or explosive power. Muscular strength is achieved by using high resistance with low repetitions. Muscular strength and muscle bulk are interrelated in that as strength increases, so does bulk.
CIRCUIT

In circuit training, exercises are organized and performed in a particular sequence. Each exercise usually targets a different muscle group. Circuit-training sessions can be planned to focus on the development of cardiorespiratory or muscular endurance and as a result are useful for improving overall fitness.

Exercises aimed at the development of muscular endurance such as sit-ups, squats and press-up can be interspersed with aerobic activities such as running, stepping, and skipping. The resistance, number of reps, and recovery period between exercises will be determined by the fitness level of the participants.

This mode of training can be adapted for use with individuals as well as groups, and is a useful mode of team training for many sports. It has the advantage of offering a variety of possibilities: it can be undertaken indoors, outdoors, with free weights or fixed weights in the gym, and can be tailored to meet the fitness demands of particular sports.
INTERVAL

This is a common form of endurance training for athletes who have already established a good base of endurance and wish to attain higher levels of fitness.

Set periods of work, usually at a relatively high intensity, are followed by periods of recovery. The interval can vary from 30seconds to 5minutes and the recovery phase may be complete rest, a walk or jogging. The recovery periods, especially active forms of recovery, allow the oxygen debt incurred during the work interval to be repaid.

This mode of training develops both aerobic and anaerobic systems.
Physiological assessment and fitness testing can be used as a means of monitoring how the body adapts to acute and chronic effects of exercise.

Acute effects of exercise:
Heart rate
Blood pressure
Lung Spirometry
Sit and reach

Chronic effects of exercise:
Aerobic endurance
Muscular endurance
Muscular strength
Power

Heart Rate

While exercising heart rate will elevate therefore producing a training effect. Target heart rate zone charts can be used to identify working heart rate zones. THR can be calculated by 220-age.

Acute effects of heart rate

Pre session: resting rate, anticipatory heart rate
During session: increase stroke volume, increase cardiac output
Post session: decrease, recovery time, resting heart rate
Blood pressure
The blood in the circulatory system is always under pressure. Without blood pressure, blood would gravitate to the lowest parts of the body. Blood pressure therefore enables some of the circulatory blood to gravitate upwards to supply the brain, and to flow through the tiny capillaries. Blood pressure will be affected by anything that makes the heart beat faster.

Acute effects of exercise
Pre session: Normal blood pressure is considered anything between 100-140mmHg for systolic and 60-90mmHg for diastolic.

During session: Systolic blood pressure rises, diastolic blood pressure stays the same or decreases slightly, heart rate increases, oxygen demand increases.

Post session: blood pressure reduces, oxygen demand decreases.

Spirometry
Spirometry measures how efficiently the lungs work and determines how much air they can hold. For this test you need to breathe into a mouthpiece attached to a recording device where the information is collected and printed.

A common measure of lung function is the measurement of peak flow. This is a simple measurement of how much air can be pushed out of the lungs in one fast blast, using a portable hand-held meter. Peak flow scores are dependent on age, height and sex.

Acute effects of spirometry













During session: increases breathing rate, increased tidal volume, increase in oxygen demand, increase production of carbon dioxide

Post session: decreased breathing rate, decreased tidal volume, decreased demand of oxygen



Sit and reach
Flexibility is the ability to work a joint and its associated soft tissue structures freely through its full range of movement. In the absents of routine stretching, muscles become tight, tendons shorten therefore impairing range of motion.

Good flexibility will help reduce injury, improve posture, balance and co-ordination.

Acute effects of sit and reach



During session: increased muscle pliability, increased tendon strength, increased range of movement, increased blood supply.
Aerobic endurance

Test: Bleep test / coopers 1.5mile run

A six week aerobic training program would improve:

Cardiovascular system
Cardiac hypertrophy
Cardiac output
Capillarisation
Increased aerobic fitness
Muscular system
Increased tolerance to lactic acid
Skeletal system
Increased in bone calcium stores
Increased thickness of hyaline cartilage
Increased production of synovial fluid
Respiratory system
Increased vital capacity
Increased minute ventilation
Increased in oxygen diffusion rate
Energy system
Increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes
Increased use of fats as an energy source
Muscular endurance

Test: 1 minute sit up / 1 minute press up

A six week resistance training program would improve:

Muscular system
Hypertrophy
Increased tendon strength
Increased muscle strength
Increase in myoglobin and mitrochondria stores
Increased tolerance to lactic acid
Cardiovascular system
Capillarisation
Respiratory system

Increase in oxygen diffusion rate



Muscular strength

Test: Handgrip dynamometer

A six week resistance training program would improve:

Muscular system
Hypertrophy
Increased tendon strength
Increased muscle strength
Increase in myoglobin and mitrochondria stores
Increased tolerance to lactic acid
Cardiovascular system
Capillarisation
Respiratory system

Increase in oxygen diffusion rate



Power


Test: Standing broad jump / vertical jump

Through a six week circuit training program would improve

Muscular system
Hypertrophy
Increased in tendon strength
Increased in muscle strength

Skeletal system
Increased stretch of ligaments
Increased thickness of hyaline cartilage
• Increased production of synovial fluid




Review
Recording results from testing sessions will allow you to analyse and interpret your data with the aim of making an assessment of the clients fitness.

You can compare sores against normative data for specific tests. This allows you to compare your client's performance with others of the same age and gender.

EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE BOYDS SYSTEMS

There are differences between your body's responses to exercise and how it adapts to long term exercise. The immediate changes that occur to the energy and neuromuscular systems are called acute responses. Long-term responses following repeated bouts of activity are referred to as adaptations to exercise.





PRE, DURING AND POST EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA

This information can be used to measure and evaluate components of fitness for a variety of reasons:
To identify components of fitness that require improvement
To provide a benchmark score against which improvements can be measured
To allow for the development of a more targeted fitness program

PRACTICALITY OF EXERCISE ACTIVITIES SELECTED

It may be necessary to reset goals and targets based on results reviewed. To complete the evaluation process you need to offer recommendations to the client to either improve or maintain their fitness. In the design of a training program, appropriate exercises must be considered that take account of the clients preferences and circumstances in terms of affordability and ease of access and whether they can be easily incorporated into their fitness regime.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT TESTS

Whether your use a laboratory or field bases test, you will need to consider its advantages and disadvantages. General issues for consideration include cost, tines, equipment and facility requirements, skill level and issues of test validity and reliability.

STRENGTHS AND AREAS FOR IMPROVEMENT

In any feedback to a client you will need to identify strengths and areas for improvement. This allows for possible recommendations for future training plans and activities. Where possible it is useful to provide normative data for reference if this will be motivating for the client.
Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
The best way to monitor intensity during exercise is to use a combination of heart-rate measurements and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Heart rates can be taken manually or by wearing a heart rate monitor. RPE is a ten-point scale that focuses on tuning the body into physical cues for recognising intensity of effort, such as a quickened breathing rate, breathlessness or flat-out effort. The RPE scale provides a way of quantifying subjective exercise intensity, but has been shown to correlate well with heart rate and oxygen uptake.







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