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Copy of Unit 6 Orgo Chem

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Eugenia Josefina

on 8 August 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Unit 6 Orgo Chem

By Francis Roxas, Sharath Yalla,
and Mukul Vallakatla

Noble Gasses
Bonds
Fairly nonreactive
Complete valence shell
High ionization energies
Very low electronegativities
Low boiling points (all gases at room temperature)

Electron Dot Structures
A hydrocarbon is a compound of hydrogen and carbon

The End
Unit 6: Bonding and Organic Chemistry
Octet Rule
The octet rule states that elements gain or lose electrons to attain an electron configuration of the nearest noble gas.
importance - when compounds achieve the noble gas configuration they become stable.
Compounds want to have eight valence electrons.
Valence electrons
A valence electron is an electron on the outer most level of the element. These electrons are the electrons used for bonding.
We know that valence electrons are the electrons used in bonding; so in order to represent ionic and covalent bonding we use electron dot structures.
Ionic bonding
Covalent bonding
Resonance
Some compounds can't be represented correctly by electron dot structures
A resonance structure is an average of two or more Lewis structures which differ only in the position of their electrons.
Functional Groups or Atoms that replace the role of hydrogen in Hydrocarbons are called substituent groups
Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons.
Arene
are made out of bezene rings
benzene rings are very stable resonance structures with alternating single and double bonds
it is commonly found in fragrant compounds of many natural substances such as in cinnamon, vanilla, clove, ginger etc..
Alkanes
hydrocarbons made of c-c single bonds
they can be straight or branched chains
they are saturated compounds
saturated compounds
C(n)H(2n+2)
Alkenes
made of c-c double bonds
they are unsaturated compounds
C(n)H(2n)
Alkynes
made of c-c triple bonds
they are unsaturated compounds
C(n)H(2n-2)
the quantum mechanical model demonstrates the e- in a model using orbitals
*when two atoms bond this model assumes that the two orbitals overlap to produce molecular orbitals
*the molecular orbital belongs to the molecule as a whole
Sigma bonds
form when 2 atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symetrical arround the axis containing the nuclei.
An s+s and a s+p will always form sigma molecular orbitals
p+p will only form sigma molecular orbitals if 2 p atomic orbitals bond end to end
Pi bonds
form when 2 p-orbitals overlap side by side. The we is leaa overlap in this configuration therefor the bonds are weaker than sigma bonds.
VSEPR Theory - valence shell repulsion theory
e- pairs repel each other
e- pairs assume orientations that minimize repulsion
the closer together 2 pairs of e- are forced, the stronger the repulsion between them
order of repulsion forces from strongest to weakest
lone pair- lone pair> lone pair - bond pair > bond pair - bond pair

Number of Carbons Name
1 meth-
2 eth-
3 prop-
4 but-
5 pent-
6 hex-
7 hept-
8 oct-
9 non-
10 dec-
11 undec-
12 dodec-

Alkanes - add -ane to the end
Alkenes - add -ene to the end
Alkynes - add -yne to the end
Cyclohydrocarbon - same root as alkane
- add cyclo to the begining.
halocarbon - name based on parent hydrocarbon with halogen group named as substituent.
alcohol - name ends in -ol
- the ones with 2,3,4 OH are named diols, triols and tetrols respectively
ether-Ethers are treated as alkanes
-if the two R groups are the same then you add the prefix di-
aldehyde/ keytone - identify the longest chain
- add -al for aldehydes or -one for keytones
carboxylic acid - add "-oic acid" at the end
ester - add -ate to the end
amine - add prefix amine- and then add the suffix -yl
A covalent bond is a chemical link between two atoms in which electrons are shared between them.
Carboxylic acid
Ionic Bond - a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion
Hydrocarbons
Quantum Mechanics
IUPAC Names
Alkanes - add -ane to the end
Alkenes - add -ene to the end
Alkynes - add -yne to the end

Aromatic hydrocarbons-
ether-Ethers are treated as alkanes
-if the two R groups are the same then you add the prefix di-
aldehyde/ keytone - identify the longest chain
- add -al for aldehydes or -one for keytones
Full transcript