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The American Revolution
Transcript of The American Revolution
The French and Indian War
The French and Indian war was fought for control of American soil.
Why was this land so valuable to European countries?
Even though Britain was victorious they gained large amounts of debt.
How would they pay off their debt?
This war becomes a seed leading toward the American Revolution.
The was passed by Parliament in 1765. This new tax was imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used. Shipping papers, legal documents, licenses, newspapers, and even playing cards were taxed.
The Boston Massacre Causes More Tension
On March 5, 1770, after 1,000 redcoats arrived in Boston under the command of General Thomas Gage, a crowd of people had gathered and began harassing the British soldiers. In the commotion, someone yelled, "Fire!" and soldiers began shooting. 5 died including Crispus Attucks.
After the shooting, the people of Boston were demanding the soldiers be tried and executed for the shootings. John Adams, a lawyer, defended them in court. Why do you think he did this?
The "Boston Massacre" became a tool for anti-British propaganda. What messages did Paul Revere want to send through this picture?
Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party was one act of protest against the British government. It took place on 16th of December, 1773 when the colonists dressed as Native Americans and threw 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor. In today's world this would equal close to $1,000,000 of product.
In 1773 Parliament repealed the Townshend Act taxes
All except the tax on TEA
Samuel Adams & Committees of Correspondence
Minutemen and Redcoats clash at
Lexington and Concord
"The shot heard 'round the world"
The Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia (1775)
The Continental Congress was the formal means by which the American colonial governments coordinated their resistance to British rule during the first two years of the American Revolution. The Congress balanced the interests of the different colonies and also established itself as the official colonial liaison with Great Britain. As the war progressed, the Congress became the effective national government of the country, and, as such, conducted diplomacy on behalf of the new United States.
Battle of Bunker Hill
The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775 during the Siege of Boston. Although it was called the Battle of Bunker Hill, it took place mostly on Breed's Hill. The colonial militia learned that British generals were planning to send troops from Boston to occupy the hills surrounding the city. William Prescott with about 1,200 colonial militia quickly constructed earthen fortifications on top of Breed's Hill. The British troops (2,000+) attacked the next day. The first two assaults were repulsed by the colonial militia resulting in considerable losses to the British force. On the third assault, the colonial militia ran out of ammunition and had to retreat back to Cambridge. Although the British won the battle, it resulted in hundred of casualties. This demonstrated that the relatively inexperienced colonial forces were willing and able to stand up to the British troops.
Paine's "Common Sense" is Published
"Common Sense" was published on January 10, 1776, by Thomas Paine and became an immediate sensation. It was sold and distributed widely and read aloud at taverns and meeting places. Washington had it read to all his troops, which at the time had surrounded the British army in Boston. In proportion to the population of the colonies at that time (2.5 million), it had the largest sale and circulation of any book published in American history. "Common Sense" presented the American colonists with an argument for freedom from British rule saying it was not only good to separate, but necessary.
Congress Debates and Revises the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence Sent to the Printers
On July 4, 1776 the Congress officially adopted the final version of the Declaration of Independence. This day is still celebrated in the United States as Independence Day. John Hancock and the Secretary of Congress, Charles Thompson, signed the document right then and there. The document was sent to a printer to make copies which were sent to all the colonies where the declaration was read aloud in public and published in newspapers. A copy was also sent to the British government.
Delegates sign The Declaration of Independence
On August 2, 1776 Fifty-six congressional delegates in total signed the document, including some who were not present at the vote approving the declaration. The delegates signed by state from North to South, beginning with Josiah Bartlett of New Hampshire and ending with George Walton of Georgia. John Dickinson of Pennsylvania, and James Duane, Robert Livingston and John Jay of New York refused to sign. Carter Braxton of Virginia; Robert Morris of Pennsylvania; George Reed of Delaware; and Edward Rutledge of South Carolina opposed the document but signed in order to give the impression of a unanimous Congress
The British occupy New York City
In early July of 1776, 280 ships carrying 32,000 British and hired Hessian troops assembled just off of Staten Island, New York. It was the largest force ever seen on the North American continent. To meet this challenge, General George Washington had only 20,000 largely untrained men in his command, and meager supplies. Geography also worked against the Americans. Because New York City is made up of several large islands, defending it was difficult. In spite of the advantages they held, the British commanders, brothers Major General William Howe and Vice Admiral Richard Howe, were reluctant to attack. They hoped that nothing more than a show of force would be necessary to subdue the colonies. This accounts for the long intervals that passed between the battles that took place in New York, and the frequent failure of the British to capitalize on a victory with pursuit. The loss of New York was a terrible blow to the Revolutionary cause, and to Washington in particular. He lost close to 1,700 men, as well as the city of New York and vast amounts of munitions which the army could ill-afford-all while inflicting little damage to the enemy. He had made several strategic errors during the battles, and some wondered if Washington was the right man to carry the colonies' hopes for independence. In the months ahead, with little exception, the American cause seemed bleak indeed.
Washington crosses the Delaware and captures Trenton from Hessians
At about 11 p.m. on Christmas 2,400 soldiers led by Washington successfully braved the icy and freezing Delaware River and reached the New Jersey side just before dawn. The other two divisions, made up of some 3,000 men and crucial artillery, failed to reach the meeting point. At approximately 8 a.m. on the morning of December 26, Washington's remaining force, separated into two columns, reached the outskirts of Trenton and descended on the unsuspecting Hessians. Trenton's 1,400 Hessian defenders were groggy from the previous evening's festivities and underestimated the Patriot threat after months of decisive British victories throughout New York. Washington's men quickly overwhelmed the Germans' defenses, and by 9:30 a.m. the town was surrounded. Although several hundred Hessians escaped, nearly 1,000 were captured at the cost of only four American lives. However, because most of Washington's army had failed to cross the Delaware, he was without adequate artillery or men and was forced to withdraw from the town.
Washington's army retires to winter quarters at Valley Forge
On October 4, 1777, George Washington’s troops led a pre-dawn attack on the British encampment at Germantown, Penn. By mid-morning, the battle was over, in large part due to a substantial fog, and heavy losses were felt by both sides. Washington and his troops retreated and retired to winter quarters at Valley Forge, while Sir William Howe and his British troops set up shop for the winter in Philadelphia, a mere 20 miles away.Despite the retreat, the skill that Washington demonstrated at Germantown, coupled with the subsequent American victory at Saratoga, gave France the confidence to recognize and support America, proving a turning point in the war.
British abandon Philadelphia and return to New York
Howe's campaign was controversial because, although he successfully captured the American capital of Philadelphia, he proceeded slowly and did not aid the concurrent campaign of John Burgoyne further north, which ended in disaster at Saratoga for the British, and brought France into the war. General Howe resigned during the occupation of Philadelphia and was replaced by his second-in-command, General Sir Henry Clinton. Clinton evacuated the troops from Philadelphia back to New York City in 1778 in order to increase that city's defenses against a possible Franco-American attack. Washington harried the British army all the way across New Jersey, and successfully forced a battle at Monmouth Court House that was one of the largest battles of the war.
Articles of Confederation Adopted
Cornwallis surrounded by Americans and French, surrenders at Yorktown, VA
British and Americans sign preliminary Articles of Peace
The United States and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Paris
British troops leave New York City
U.S. Constitution is signed
The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other. The other combatant nations, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic had separate agreements. Peace negotiations began in April of 1782, signed by American representatives Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Laurens, and John Adams in Pars, France. Benjamin Franklin was a strong proponent of Britain ceding the Province of Quebec (Eastern Canada) to the United States because he believed that having British territory physically bordering American territory would cause conflict in the future. Britain, however, refused.On September 3, 1783, Great Britain also signed separate agreements with France and Spain, and (provisionally) with the Netherlands.
On this day in 1783, nearly three months after the Treaty of Paris was signed ending the American Revolution, the last British soldiers withdraw from New York City, the last British military position in the United States. After the last Redcoat departed New York, U.S. General George Washington entered the city in triumph to the cheers of New Yorkers. The city had remained in British hands since its capture in September 1776
April 19, 1775
700 British Redcoats marched up to Lexington Green at dawn, the Lexington Minutemen were there to meet them.
The first shot fired said to be "The shot heard 'round the world." What do you interpret this quote to mean?
This becomes the first battle of the Revolutionary War.
The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, on November 15, 1777. However, ratification of the Articles of Confederation by all thirteen states did not occur until March 1, 1781. The Articles created a loose confederation of sovereign states and a weak central government, leaving most of the power with the state governments. The need for a stronger Federal government soon became apparent and eventually led to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. The present United States Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation on March 4, 1789
The members of the Constitutional Convention signed the United States Constitution on September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Constitutional Convention convened in response to dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation and the need for a strong centralized government. After four months of secret debate and many compromises, the proposed Constitution was submitted to the states for approval. Although the vote was close in some states, the Constitution was eventually ratified and the new Federal government came into existence in 1789. The Constitution established the U.S. government as it exists today.
In July of 1776 Congress spent two days revising the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia after Jefferson submitted the first drafted. After a vote for independence on July 2, Congress continued to refine the document before its final adoption on the morning of July 4.
"Free and independent states"
Connection with Britain totally dissolved
Based on John Locke's philosophy of natural rights
If a government disregards these right it loses its right to govern
Before the French and Indian War British interfered very little with colonial affairs; they rarely tried to enforce laws. As long as the colonies were continuing to profit the "Mother Country" they were free to do as they please.
Proclamation of 1763
After the French and Indian War many conflict arose between the colonists and Native American Tribes in the newly "won" land west of the Appalachian Mountains.
This displeased Great Britain (the king) who was not in the mood for another war; so Parliament band colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
With this law colonial anger toward the King and Parliament began to grow.
Watch only to 2:19
King George III Enforces Taxation
King George III asks Parliament to pass laws which would tax traded good shipped to the colonies. The first of these taxes passed was the in 1764. This law taxed sugar, molasses, wine, etc.
King George knew he needed to enforce these laws more strictly than ever before. He decided to send 10,000 soldiers to Colonial America to keep the peace and enforce the new tax laws.
In order to save money on soldier's living costs, Parliament passed the which required colonist to house and supply British soldiers with their daily needs.
Colonial Protesting Begins
Stamp Act Congress (NYC)
Burning stamped papers
Tar and Feathering British officials
Sons of Liberty
Daughters of Liberty
Promoted American goods
Britain Responds to Colonial Protesting
Repealing Stamp Act - 1766
Parliament = supreme authority
Passed the - 1767
Suspending NY assemblies
Tax on glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
- search warrants
British Response to The Boston Tea Party
Colonial Response to the Intolerable Acts
First Continental Congress, Philadelphia, 1774 (Government!!)
Delegates from every colony except Georgia
Ban trade w/ Britain (boycott)
Training troops began
Colonists must Choose...
Live under British rule
Patrick Henry's speech
"...I know not what road others may take, but for me give me liberty or give me death!"
How do you gain followers for your cause?
Lexington & Concord
Britain needs to quiet the colonist
Seize ammunition in Concord
Arrest Samuel Adams & John Hancock in Lexington
Who attended the Second Continental Congress?
Delegates from each colony:
George Washington Virginia
Patrick Henry Virginia
John Adams Massachusetts
Samuel Adams Massachusetts
John Hancock Massachusetts
Benjamin Franklin Pennsylvania
What did the Second Continental Congress Accomplish?
Printing of paper $$
"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" - Prescott
“From the errors of other nations, let us learn wisdom,”
-Thomas Paine, Common Sense
One Last Chance at Peace - The Olive Branch Petition
July 5, 1775
Blockaded American ship
Battle at Quebec
December 31, 1775
Continental Army invades Quebec under the leadership of Benedict Arnold
Harsh winter conditions caused a failed invasion
Battle at Boston
March 2, 1776
Washington and the Continental Army surround the British at Boston
9,000+ British fled
Patriots reclaimed the city
Start a new page of notes for Chapter 6 "The Road to the Revolution"
Chart --- section 1 "Tighter British Control" --- Find 5 examples:
Great Britain's Control Why Colonial Response
(name & definition)
Writs of Assistance
Many colonists IGNORED the law.
James Otis: "Taxation without representation is tyranny!"
How did the Colonists respond
to the King's demands?
How would you respond?
How did the colonists respond?