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Information and Communication Technologies and Rural Development, Informatising Zimbabwe
Transcript of Information and Communication Technologies and Rural Development, Informatising Zimbabwe
van Stam, G., & van Oortmerssen, G. (2010). Macha Works! Frontiers of Society On-Line. Raleigh. http://journal.webscience.org/339/
Relatio: An Examination of the Relational Dimension of Resource Allocation:
Discourse critiquing classical conceptions rational-choice, altruism, etc
Recognizing facets of African uniqueness is crucial to economic success
Describes economic behavior influenced by cultural identity
Depicts African economic experience
Provides view to support effective economic symbiosis
Sheneberger, K., & van Stam, G. (2011). Relatio: An Examination of the Relational Dimension of Resource Allocation. Economics and Finance Review, 1(4), 26 - 33
J. Bets, G. van Stam, and A. Voorhoeve, “Modeling and Practise of Integral Development in rural Zambia. Case Macha.,” in Fourth International IEEE EAI Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries (Africomm 2012)
Implementing ICTs using a collaborative approach
Holistic Approach, involving all Stakeholders
Local Heroes Manage Activities
Appropriate and Affordable Technology
Needs of Local Community first
Skill Development through Observation and Participatory Interaction
Sharing of the connection by Community, Education and Health
Matthee, K., Mweemba, G., Pais, A., Van Stam, G., & Rijken, M. (2007). Bringing Internet connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach. International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development.
BBC Clicks. (2011). BBC Clicks - Macha Works
"Blueprint for Rural Development in Africa?"
Rural Internet Use:
"I am now testifying that my life has greatly changed because I have full access to Internet. Before Internet was implemented I was in a dark world but I am now in the light because of Internet. I am saying so because as a teacher I would like to know what is happening around the world so that I can update my pupils on current affairs. Right now I have all the information on my fingertips".
van Hoorik, P., & Mweetwa, F. (2008). Use of internet in rural areas of Zambia. In P. Cunningham & M. Cunningham (Eds.), ST-Africa 2008 (pp. 1-14). Windhoek, Namibia.
Performance and Use ICT in rural areas
Heavily Congested, Long Latency
Johnson, D. L., Belding, E. M., Almeroth, K., & van Stam, G. (2010). Internet Usage and Performance Analysis of a Rural Wireless Network in Macha, Zambia. ACM Workshop on Networked Systems for Developing Regions.
Character of Traffic
Distinct class due to unique set of challenges
Automatic file downloads hamper interactivity
High TCP round trip times, sometimes over 10 sec
While Average Page Size grows, Digital Divide widens
Johnson, D. L., Pejovic, V., Belding, E. M., & Van Stam, G. (2011). Traffic Characterization and Internet Usage in Rural Africa. Proceedings of WWW, March 2011, Hyderabad, India
Witnessed high degree of user-to-user interaction, half of them within the village
69% between 20 and 30 years
67% use internet more then 3 hours a day
71% use internet frequently for learning
91% wish more access
94% never online business, 73% never bought
Johnson, D. L., Belding, E. M., & Van Stam, G. (2012). Network traffic locality in a rural African village. ICTD 2012.
Innovation in e-Learning
Challenges pedagogical arrangements
Exchange of the inexpressible
Shoemaker, K., & Van Stam, G. (2010). ePiano, a case of music education via internet in rural Zambia. Society On-Line, April 26-27th, 2010, Raleigh, USA
Alignment with African Values
G. van Stam, A Strategy to make ICT accessible in rural Zambia: A case study of Macha. Port Elizabeth, South Africa: NMMU, 2013.
Open Source Protocols
Mesh Potato (CSIR/Meraka)
But also coming
TV White Space Technology
Balloons (Google), Drones (Facebook)
J. Backens, G. Mweemba, and G. van Stam, “A Rural Implementation of a 52 Node Mixed Wireless Mesh Network in Macha, Zambia,” in E-Infrastructures and E-Services on Developing Countries (Africomm 2010), 2010, pp. 32–39.
ZimASSET in changing Global, Regional, National context
Unique Opportunities for Applied Research, post-crisis
Living the Life, we all know how to live holistically
Coming: Sharing Economies, Peer-2-Peer, strength of `The Commons'
G. van Stam and D. van Greunen, “Review of an African Rural Internet Network and related Academic Interventions,” J. Community Informatics, vol. 10, no. 2, 2014.
G. van Stam, “Thoughts on African Content and Implementation Strategies involved in ICT Access in (rural) Africa,” in HSRC, Seminar Series, Pretoria, 2014
G. van Stam, “Preparing the Next Generation of Teachers,” in National Dialogue on ICT for Education for Sustainable Development, Juliasdale, 2014
G. van Stam, “ICT, Health and Big Data,” in Health Expo, Harare, 2013
G. van Stam, “ICT Opportunities in Development. African Agriculture/Health/Social Services,” in Computer Society of Zimbabwe Summer School 2013, “ICT – Creating Africa’s Quantum Leap,”, Victoria Falls, 2013
G. van Stam, “African Engineering and Colonialistic Conditioning,” in Africomm, Blantyre, 2013
G. van Stam, “Circumstances and Experiences concerning Education for Innovation,” in Computer Society of Zimbabwe Summer School 2013, “ICT – Creating Africa’s Quantum Leap,”, Victoria Falls, 2013.
T. F. Bissyande, D. Ahmat, J. Ouoba, G. van Stam, J. Klein, and Y. Le Traon, “Sustainable ICT4D in Africa: Where Do We Go From Here?,” in Africomm, Blantyre, 2013
J. Bishi, A. M. Gamundani, and G. van Stam, “Assessing the potential of eAgriculture in Zimbabwe,” in Africomm, Blantyre, 2013
S. H. Kembo, G. Hapanyengwi, G. D. Brooking, and G. van Stam, “Progressing Services in African Mobile Networks utilizing Big Data Research,” in Africomm , Blantyre, 2013
G. van Stam, “Thought Leadership in e-Governance, e-Infrastructure, and e-Business in Africa,” in Africomm, Blantyre 2013
G. van Stam, “Towards Positioning Gateway in the Education Revolution,” Harare, Zimbabwe, 2013.
G. van Stam, “Positioning of IEEE to validate Blended Learning, and Case Africa,” Harare, 2013.
G. van Stam, “eLearning in Africa and the Opportunity for Innovative Credentialing,” in Africomm, Blantyre, 2013
G. van Stam, “Inclusive Community Engagement in Social Innovation, case Africa,” in Africomm, Blantyre, 2013
G. van Stam, “MOOCs, An Opportunity for African Influence in Western Civilisation?,” in eLearning Africa, Windhoek, 2013
Mudenda, C., van Stam, G. ICT Training in Rural Zambia. Case Study: LinkNet Information Technology Academy (Africomm 2012)
Workforce Development, Country Wide
A. Community Engagement
B. Workforce Development
C. Thought Leadership
Community Engagement amplified by Technology
Localised ICT Training,
also in Rural Areas