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Cost in BIM

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nessma salem

on 22 February 2018

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Transcript of Cost in BIM

Cost in BIM
Model Based Estimations ‎
‎3-‎ Location-Based Management Systems (LBMS)‎
the objectives of LBMS are defined as focusing on providing continuous workflow, completing ‎locations in sequence‎
‎2-‎ Lean Construction‎
In order to take full advantages of BIM tools, LEAN had been created which is more like creating ‎an environment where BIM can be implemented successfully
1- Clash Detection :
Introduction :

This Research was inspired by the current level of uncertainty as to how BIM will affect the cost consulting profession in the whole world

It presents a practical application of integrating different concepts of BIM with cost planning, and
how implementing a BIM technology could massively reduce the initial cost of a project besides reducing its life cycle cost
But first , What is BIM ?
Research Structure
Initial Cost "Before Construction "
Clash Detection
Lean Construction
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)
During Construction

Quantity take off
Value Engineering
Location Based Management System (LBMS)
Augmented Reality (AR)
After Construction Completion
Project Life Cycle
LEED & Energy
5D BIM Estimating
How 5D BIM Affects Project Cost ?
BIM is a process that involves creating and using an intelligent 3D model to inform and communicate ‎project decisions.
It provides greater clarity for all stakeholders across the project life cycle and makes it easier to achieve ‎project and business goals.‎

(Autodesk definition)‎

.. 5D BIM ?
BIM is a process…not software! (10% technology / 90% sociology)‎
It's a new way of working with the Owner and the project stakeholders, bringing a wealth of ‎information and experience to the project in a visually communicative way (1) .‎

5D is 3D + schedule (time) + cost
How Did We Get There !
Design-Bid-Build (DBB)‎
doesn’t accurately measure
the real budget and additional cost resulting from last minute ‎decisions to the owner (12)‎
Prices often change from the tender process to the actual writing of the contract. This is a risk ‎management question that can either mean a
higher profit
for the contractor or an
actual loss (10)
Design Build (DB)‎

An inexperienced client could
wrongly decide
which alternative is the most advantageous in total (10).‎
Partnering started with regular meetings and workshops between project key personnel to ensure ‎data transfer (10)
then the concept was backed up by using technology and software programs to ‎facilitate smooth flow of information through distances‎
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) ‎
Owner is involved in every detail regarding the project and even
takes the responsibility with the ‎contractor in any actual losses
as there is no decision maker in the project ‎ (12)
Project organizations:‎
The most used deliver method on the market today‎
The first emerge of 5D BIM approach ‎
win-win Game
Cost management and development of cost estimations
Construction is not just one model, but several‎..
Case Study
We use BIM technology to detect clashes, helping avoid conflicts and risks.‎
Linking the modified model using clash detection method to a 5D BIM estimation program can lead to ‎a very
accurate cost estimation based on the elimination of clashes and design error‎
Implementing 3D Model based design reviews using SMART boards and involving all parties involved ‎in the design process
BIM Strategy Comprises 3 elements
Cost Savings:

‎ Reduced wastage by minimizing clashes
‎ At Farringdon Station, 3D model linked to the delivery program
cost £120k but saved over ‎‎£8million ‎
Clash detection is a Lean Construction approach to cost saving and coordination
lean is more as a new mindset for different project participants‎
The main aim of Lean Construction is to give :
• A focus on reducing unnecessary consumption /
eliminating waste and there for saving Cost

The primary function of Lean and BIM during ‎the Construction stage i
s to minimize waste and shield production from uncertainty
. This helps to ‎compress Overall time taken and improve quality (and value) for the client, ‎
Lean construction techniques are incorporated throughout the
Vico Office 5D BIM workflow
. ‎Removing waste and redundancy through leveraged integration means that a
change in the model ‎geometry is automatically updated in the quantities, schedule, and estimate

Vico Cost Planner step-1‎
creates cost plan iterations
based on either manual input or BIM-based quantity takeoff

Visually compare
any cost plan version with an earlier assumption
Quantify, visually identify, and
present the cost variances
that constantly threaten to create a budget ‎overrun
Vico Cost Explorer step-2:‎
• Visually "see" the budget as a
three-dimensional model
• Engage the Owner and all constituents with
what-if scenarios
and compare two or three budget/design ‎options side-by-side
• Determine the key drivers to cost variance and work together to
keep the budget on track

Lean construction techniques for 5D BIM in Vico Office :
Associated with lean and BIM are target pricing and target value design,which both maximizes ‎
‎ value that can be generated through collaboration and integration

‎Target Cost (TC) and Target Value Design (TVD)‎
Target Cost (TC):
The cost established as a target at the onset of the project (Ballard, 2004). ‎

Target Value Design:
a newly merged value engineering based approach ‎implemented in
Lean practices and BIM
projects. The goal of TVD is to
achieve the greatest value on ‎behalf of the owner

for less than the originally conceptualized target cost (3) .

Integrating 5D BIM and TVD: ‎

• Processes within estimating, such as quantity survey and pricing, may be automated by using ‎existing BIM software in combination with existing estimating software (Sattineni, 2011).‎

- The as-built BIM database of the past projects would be a useful source of ‎information for
setting a target price for future projects

Unlike the traditional process, where estimating follows a design phase, in TVD practice, cost and ‎value drives design.
In TVD, there is evidence to suggest that a projects’ initial scope is completed below market ‎cost, often as much as
19 % below
To implement value management techniques such as TC and TVD, project stakeholders have adopted a collaborative ‎platform, the emerging Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) approach
‎2-‎ Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) ‎
Where all stakeholders share in the risk of the design and build process, and share in the rewards of ‎productivity increases. (12)
Integrating 5D BIM and IPD: ‎
Drives the core stakeholders to produce only positive results
So far, one thing has to be clarify is that the three concepts, LEAN, IPD and BIM, can be used ‎independently,
but when LEAN and BIM bundled together as a IPD based project, they reac¬tion will ‎be one plus one is bigger than two.‎
currently used to a very limited extent
Through 5D , Cost estimating can be carried out through linking the model to an estimating ‎database (2) ,this can be done through :
sources such as Building Cost Information Service (BCIS)‎ ,
linking a
‘5D Cost Library’
to BIM, which performs the function of an estimating ‎database. ‎

Sutter Medical Center Castro Valley (SMCCV) ‎‎
320 million Project ‎
Case Study
Cost Estimating Total Cycle time / traditional system 8 Weeks (12)
Cost Estimating Total Cycle time / model based system 3 Weeks (12)
‎1-‎ Quantity Take off (QTO):‎
Comparing man hours spent on performing quantity takeoffs using Onscreen Takeoff and ‎model-based takeoffs, the result is obviously:
Total time required for model QTO was reduced ‎by more than 75% from the traditional QTO Method (5) .‎
Extracting quantities from 2D-drawings can take up as much as 50 %- 80 % of the estimator’s ‎time in a project (2)
2- Value Engineering (VE) : ‎
In an attempt to create more cost effective projects, value engineering is used

5D estimating process allows for a cost visual simulation of the options ‎selected
contributes with projects life cycle cost information integrated with the 6D BIM , ‎which makes it well comprehended to the decision makers ‎(11)
Case Study
Source : Beck Technology, using DProfiler ‎
Traditional VE Estimating ‎
‎ 240 hours , (2 estimators, 120 hrs) ‎

‎5D BIM for VE Estimating ‎
20 hours, 1 Estimator ‎

That's a 92% man-hour reduction!‎
Integrating LBMS and 5D BIM:‎

‎ ‎5D simulation using BIM tracks the costs by locations giving the contractor clear budgeting criteria that is linked by ‎time and space (1) .

This provides the contractor with a powerful financing tool through an early determined cash flow with ‎negligible errors(7)
Case Study
The cost of optimization by using integrated 4D/5D systems highlights the significant benefit of ‎a project. Figure 2 highlights data collected from a CPM to LBMS analysis

By optimizing the project using CPM the cost of mobilization/demobilization was ‎USD$983,309.‎

The cost of optimizing the schedule using LBMS was USD$142,367. ‎
This is a
saving of USD$840,942
by adopting the 5D LBMS process (1) .

In this flowline chart, you can see that the red ovals indicate crew clashes and the blue ovals ‎indicate under-utilized locations. By increasing or decreasing crew productivity with ‎additional personnel, you can avoid crew pile-ups and keep teams flowing through the site ‎without interruption .
Eureka Hospital project in California
Case Study
5- ‎‎ Augmented Reality (AR):‎
• By superimposing the 5D model with reality onsite, it is possible to measure the activities ‎progress and the cost up-to-date, through a physical comparison of as-built with as-‎planned (4) .‎
Determining as-built status on a worksite is a very labor intense and time-consuming activity ‎‎(Navon, 2007). ‎
• BIM technology complements AR views ability. BIM models can be viewed by layers or filters, ‎facilitating the progress measure.‎
By superimposing differentiated information, selected by the user, through AR, withdrawn ‎from BIM model, the onsite measure process becomes easier less confusing and
labor cost ‎saving ‎(4)
• This technology once connected to the BIM model, it results in an accurate up to date 5D ‎Estimates during construction and for the project life cycle , which eliminates waste of ‎materials on site and overlooks a very labor intense and time-consuming activity (4) ‎
‎1-‎ Project Life Cycle Cost : (LCC)‎
is a technique that is used to relate the initial cost with future based costs like running, ‎operation, maintenance, replacement, alteration costs (12)
One of the BIM promising attributes , providing a unique source for cost estimating for the ‎entire lifecycle of the project. According to Kahnzode et al (2007) a
3% cost
accuracy could ‎be achieved from front-end cost (8).
Case Study
In 2004 the Construction Industry Institute estimated that
57% of money spent on construction is ‎
—which is
With the U.S. construction market estimated at ‎US$1.288 trillion for 2008, at 57% waste,
over $600 billion per year is being wasted (6)
. ‎
Case Study
Mission Hospital - St. Joseph Health System
• The VE Option was a floor-to-floor glass curtain wall with steel cladding including ‎design gusset plate, waterproofing, and the fireproofing solutions. This option was
$150,000 ‎higher than the Original design façade ‎

• ‎ by studying this VE Option with the original design option and comparing each other's ‎
purchase rate
and the
life cycle cost

for operating and maintaining each of them
, ‎
• the team was able to choose the VE Alternative before the actual construction

Team was able to save
‎in cost , time and the LCC of the project for only an
$80K investment
in the modeling ‎expertise.‎

LEED & Energy
Developing a 5D BIM model that allows the viewing and reviewing of LEED information in a Virtual Environmen, allows the analysis ‎of cost to be interoperable with the BIM and the LEED certification review process,
and also ‎allows the analysis of how changes made over time affect the total cost of the LEED review.

The idea of new dimensions for the AEC industry (Architecture, Engineering & Construction) is ‎not new. Lee, et al. (2005) proposed nD modeling as an enabler for construction improvement. An ‎nD model is an extension of the BIM that incorporates multi-aspects of design information required ‎at each stage of the overall project life cycle. The new dimension is energy and its purpose is to ‎assess the energy cost, energy standards, and energy efficient quality of all AEC related projects to ‎provide humans with healthier and more
sustainable built environments. Figure 7 below partially shows how 6D can be directly related to 2D, ‎‎3D, 4D, and 5D, and also shows the direct link between LEED certification and 6D. The 6D is a ‎vital and sustainable part of nD modeling, sustainable design and construction, and BIM

The LEED certification process can be done in a VE if the ‎Credit Numbers and requirements are
embedded into the BIM model
during the Design ‎Development Phase of the Project Life Cycle (9) .‎
An ‎nD model is an extension of the BIM that incorporates multi-aspects of design information required ‎at each stage of the overall project life cycle.
The new dimension is energy and its purpose is to ‎assess the energy cost (9)

Autodesk Green Building Studio and 5d BIM
Provides a Detailed statistics, assumptions, and information on building LEED Design .
This information once connected to 5D BIM Model can generate detailed cost estimates for the energy saving plan , and how it will effect the current design of the project
Cross rail-London (2005-2019)‎
Conclusion :
Integrating 5D BIM and Lean
Thank you,,,
Christopher Mouflard1

(2) Advantages and Challenges of Using BIM: a Cost Consultant’s Perspective

(3) Advancing Target Price and Target Value Design Process in IPD Using BIM and Risk-Sharing Approaches


(5) ASPE SEP 8th Edition
Building Information Modeling Section

(6) InfoComm BIM Taskforce , Building Information Modeling

(7) Enabling BIM Based Design and Construction: A Practical Example of a Lean Medical Facility

(8) Rethinking the Cost Estimating Process through 5D BIM: a Case Study

(9) How the integration of n- dimensional models (BIM) and GIS technology
may offer the potential to adopt green building strategies and to achieve low
cost constructions.



(12) Model Based Cost Estimations
- An International Comparison
Carl Bylund
Ahmed Soliman
Eyad Zamzam
Lamia Shahin
Nada Ibrahim
Nessma Salem
Reham Ghazy
Sally Moheb
Sara Mohamed
Wael Ibrahim

"Model Based Estimating "
Case Study
A study done by Stanford University Centre for Integrated Facilities Engineering (CIFE) figures based ‎on
32 major projects
using BIM indicates benefits such as (CIFE, 2007):‎

‎•‎ Up to
40% elimination
of unbudgeted change. ‎
‎•‎ Cost estimation
accuracy within 3%. ‎
‎•‎ Up to
80% reduction in time
taken to generate a cost estimate. ‎
‎•‎ A savings of up to
10% of the contract value
through clash detections.‎
‎ ‎
Up to 7% reduction in project time
. (Azhar S. et al.(2009))‎

Although there are some drawbacks to this visual medium , BIM Technology can be a very “enlightening information medium” particularly for the non-construction stakeholder ,
Implementing BIM Technology integrated with other Collaborating concepts indicates large benefits in Cost and Time Management , Risk Management and enhances the ability of taking proactive decisions which lead to the optimum case of "Value added" projects , maximum elimination of waste and avoidance of project life cycle cost total loss

Highlighting the importance of integrating the software interoperability with think approaches such as Lean Construction , IPD , TC, TVD...... etc - which may contribute largely in controlling, monitoring and reducing the project Cost- opens the debate of weather or not it is applicable to convert these think approaches into a technology relied tool which can be integrated directly with the BIM model
In the current situation where the companies are almost overwhelmed with everyday new
technologies and processes, BIM Technology will probably remain used to a very limited extent and its great benefits in cost and waste reduction will probably remain overlooked

until now ,There will not be a certain business model for these services other than
traditional compensation. having all different collaborative work techniques integrated together in one software will definitely base a solid ground for a future maintained resources , It should rather be seen as a weapon of competition or a tool for increased cost control within the own organization.

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