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Principles of Anatomy and Physiology in Sport - Unit 1 - Les
Transcript of Principles of Anatomy and Physiology in Sport - Unit 1 - Les
1) What are the 5 types of major bone?
2) What bones make up the axial skeleton?
3) What bones make up the appendicular skeleton?
4) Name the 8 anatomical locations?
5) What type of bone is the sternum?
6) What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system
Why are joints important?
The importance of Joints
Joints are the place where two bones meet. All of your bones, except for one (the hyoid bone in your neck), form a joint with another bone. Joints hold your bones together and allow your rigid skeleton to move.
Some of your joints, like those in your skull, are fixed and don't allow any movement. The bones in your skull are held together with fibrous connective tissue.
Slightly Movable Joints
Other joints, such as those between the vertebrae in your spine, which are connected to each other by pads of cartilage, can only move a small amount.
Most of your joints are 'synovial joints'. They are movable joints containing a lubricating liquid called synovial fluid. Synovial joints are predominant in your limbs where mobility is important. Ligaments help provide their stability and muscles contract to produce movement.
All synovial joints contain the following features
- Joint Capsules -
helps hold the bones in place and protect the joint
- Synovial Membrane -
the capsule lining that oozes a viscous liquid called the synovial fluid, this lubricates the joint
- Joint Cavity -
the gap between the articulating bones where synovial fluid pools to lubricate the joint
- Articular Cartilage -
to provide a smooth and slippery covering to stop the bones knocking and grinding together
- Ligaments -
to hold the bones together and keeps them in place
Synovial joints can be divided into the following groups, according to the type of movement they allow -
Hinge joints like in your knee and elbow, enable movement similar to the opening and closing of a hinged door.
Ball and Socket Joint
Ball and socket joints are like your hip and shoulder joints and are the most mobile type of joint in the human body. They allow you to swing your arms and legs in many different directions.
Also known as condyloid joints, these are modified version of a ball and socket joint, in which a bump on one bone sits in the hollow formed by another. Movement is backwards and forwards and from side to side. Ligaments often prevent rotation. An example is the wrist joint
Gliding joints occur between the surfaces of two flat bones that are held together by ligaments. Some of the bones in your wrists and ankles move by gliding against each other
A ring of one bone fits over a peg of another, allowing controlled rotational movement, such as the joint of the atlas and axis in the neck
The only saddle joints in your body are in your thumbs. The bones in a saddle joint can rock back and forth and from side to side, but they have limited rotation.
Types of Movement
When studying the body in action it is important to understand the range of movements that joints are capable of performing. The degree of movement at joints varies between individuals and depends on the following:
1 - The shape and contour of the articulating surfaces
2 - The tension of the supporting connective tissue
3 - The muscles that surround the joint
4 - The amount of soft tissue surrounding the joint
5 - The individuals age
Bending a limb, reducing the angle at the joint, such as bending your arm in a bicep curl action or preparing to kick a football
Straightening a limb to increase the angle at the joint, such as straightening your arm to return to your starting position in a bicep curl action or taking a shot in netball
Movement away from the body, such as a tennis player preparing for a serve
Movement towards the body, such as pulling the oars while rowing
Circular movement of a limb, rotation occurs at the should joint during a tennis serve
An inward rotation of the forearm so that the palm of the hand is facing backwards and downwards. This occurs at the wrist joint during a table tennis forehand topspin shot
An outward rotation of the forearm so that the palm of the hand is facing forwards and upwards. This occurs at the wrist joint during a table tennis backhand topspin
A movement that points the toes downwards by straightening the ankle. This occurs when jumping to shoot in basketball
An upward movement, as in moving the foot to pull the toes towards the knee in walking
Involves movement beyond the normal anatomical position in a direction opposite to flexion. This occurs at the spine when a cricketer arches their back when approaching the crease to bowl
In groups of 4, you are each required to prepare a short demonstration showing the types of movements previously discussed.
EVERYONE HAS TO TAKE PART
Now complete P1 and P2 of assessment one!
Individual Activity # 1
Individually, match up the images with the correct type of synovial joint
You have 5 minutes