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Biochemistry Pathways

Overview of the general biochemical pathways and their relationships to one another

Jason Streeter

on 27 November 2012

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Transcript of Biochemistry Pathways

Hepatic Cell Cytosol Glycolysis Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation Lactose Fermentation Citric Acid Cycle Beta Oxidation Ammonia Transport to Liver Heme Synthesis Phosphatidic acid Synthesis Mevalonate to isoprene Amino Acid Deamination Fatty Acid Carnatine Entry Ketone Body Formation Squalene Formation Beta Hydroxybutyrate as fuel Fatty acid synthesis Tryacylglycerol & Glycerophospolipid synthesis LCAT action on surface of LDLs Squalene to Cholesterol Cholesterol ester formation Malonyl-Coa synthesis Diacylglycerol activation PPP Mitochondria High Energy Conditions Low Energy Cytosol Muscle Cell Ethanol Fermentation Glycolysis Cytosol Yeast Cell Anaerobic Cytosol Bacterial Cell Thiamine
Panthothenic Acid Oxidation- Monounsaturated Fats Oxidation- Odd Chain FAs Nitrogen Fixation Glycerol metabolism Brain Cell Adipose Tissue Dietary Intake FA to FA-COA Malonyl-Coa inhibits Carnitine acyl-transferase I Shuttle of Acetyl Coa for FA Synthesis Malic Enzyme Fatty acid elongation Acetyl-Coa Acetyl-Coa Acetyl-Coa Acetyl-Coa Acetyl-Coa Gluconeogenesis To Adipose Tissue To Membrane Mevalonate formation Urea Cycle Glutamate Dehydrogenase glutamate dehydrogenase Excess NH4 from Nucleotide Degradation Glutamine from extrahepatic tissues Anaerobic alanine aminotransferase Pyruvate Alanine Glutamate alpha-ketoglutarate Fumarate Malate Arginine
Proline Glutamate Isoleucine
Valine Phenylalanine
Tyrosine AspartateAspargine Alanine
Tryptophan Pyruvate Phenylalanine
Lycine Threonine
Tryptophan From Ketone Bodies Glucose View Pathway View Pathway View Pathway Catabolism Catabolism Catabolism Catabolism Catabolism Catabolism Catabolism Glutamine
Arginine Anabolism Asparagine Anabolism Alanine Anabolism Tyrosine Anabolism Serine Anabolism Glycine
Cysteine Anabolism Synthesis of delta Aminolevulinate Amino Acids Anabolic Glycolysis Products Anabolic TCA Products Dietary Intake Neurotransmitter Synthesis Nitric Oxide Synthesis Glutathione synthesis acts as Antioxidant To Citric Acid Cycle IMP synthesis Tetrahydrafolate Purine Synthesis Purine Catabolism Pyrimidine synthesis Citrulline Synthesis To Urea Cycle dUMP to dTMP (Uracil to Thymine) Methionine synthesis Chapter 14 Biochemical Pathways Adapted from Principles of Biochemistry Lehninger Fifth Edition Glycolysis Chapter 16 Cytric Acid Cycle Chapter 17 Fatty Acid Oxidation Chapter 21 Lipid Synthesis Chapter 18 Amino Acid Catabolism Summary of aa catabolism Chapter 22 N-containing molecule synthesis Overview of amino acid synthesis (bacteria) (Distinct from HMG-Coa of ketone body formation) Commital and rate-limiting step Endoplasmic Reticulum Not Calabolized in Liver Leucine
Valine Leucine
IsoLeucine in extrahepatic cells NADPH NADPH NADPH NADPH NADPH From PPP (not from urea cycle; produced in cytoplams) (transamination) (remove sulfur,
transamination) (convert to serine) (PLP, dehrydratase) (requires glycine to activate TH4, becomes serine) (convert to alanine) several steps Glutamine Synthase in Plants Minor Path-glutamate dehydrogenase Cannot be produced by humans (essential) To brain cells Thiamine B1 Pyrodoxin B6 Biotin B7 Biotin B7 Folic Acid B9
Cobalamine B12 Cobalamine B12
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