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BIM USE Ontology

Provides a shared vocabulary which is utilized to model (or express) the Uses of BIM, including the type of objects (or terms), and concepts, properties, and relationships that exist. (https://sites.google.com/site/bimuses/)
by

Ralph Kreider

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of BIM USE Ontology

BIM USE ONTOLOGY
Ralph Kreider
The methods of applying Building Information Modeling
during a facility’s life cycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.
A feature, attribute, or quality of a BIM Use, which serves to identify it
Focused on the purpose
or the reason why

does not consider
Facility Element
Life-cycle Phase
Author Discipline
Level of Development
BIM does not change the purpose, only the means by which that purpose is achieved
BIM Use Purpose
Gather
BIM Use Characteristics
Research Background
Problem
Goal
Process
No common language of the Uses of Building Information Modeling
Realize
Analyze
Generate
Communicate
Implementation
BIM Tool
BIM Use Case
BIM Strategy
BIM Application
SYNONYMS:
What is a BIM Use
(Computer Integrated Construction Research Program 2009, 2011)
Existing Conditions Modeling
Cost Estimation
Phase Planning (4D Modeling)
Programming
Site Analysis
Design Review
Design Authoring
Structural Analysis
Lighting Analysis
Energy Analysis
Mechanical Analysis
Engineering Analysis
3D Coordination
Site Utilization Planning
Construction System Design
Digital Fabrication
3D Control and Planning
Record Modeling
Building Maintenance Scheduling
Building System Analysis
Asset Management
Space Management / Tracking
Disaster Planning
(Eastman et al. 2008)
BIM for the Construction Industry
Clash Detection
Quantity Takeoff and Cost Estimating
Construction Analysis and Cost Estimating
Cost and Schedule Control
Offsite Fabrication
Verification, Guidance, and Tracking of Construction Activities
Concept Design and Preliminary Analysis
Space Planning
Building System Design and Analysis/Simulation
Analysis/Simulation Software
Cost Estimation
Collaboration
Experimental Design Using a Design ‘Workbench’
Construction - Level Building Models
Building System Layouts
Drawing and Document Production
Specifications
Design - Construction Integration
Design Review
BIM for Architects and Engineers
BIM Use in Design Processes
BIM for Owners and Facility Managers
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Project Communication and Model Review Tools
Model Viewing and Review
Model Servers
Facility and Asset Management Tools
Operation Simulation Tools
BIM for Subcontractors and Fabricators
(Dept. of Veterans Affairs 2010)
Space and Medical Equipment Validation
Architecture – Spatial and Material Design Models
Energy Analysis
Design Visualization for Communication, Functional Analysis, & Constructability
Building System Models – Structural, MEPF, and Interiors
Master plan Space Scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
Communication of Construction scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
COBIE/Commissioning
Clash Detection/Coordination
Virtual Testing and Balancing
Additional BIM Uses
Evaluating physical security & survivability
Early MEP design
3D – Virtual functionality viewing and testing of the design
5D – Material take-offs & cost estimating
Creating a interactive virtual workspace for the Design Team to achieve integrated design goals
Integrating information
Achieving automated code checking
Repeatable modular construction components to speed construction erection time
Modular construction & off-site fabrication
(U.S. General Services Administration 2011)
Circulation and Security Validation


3D Laser Scanning
Facility Management
4D Phasing
Program Validation
The Uses of BIM
(AGC 2006)
Creating and Reviewing 3D Models
3D Modeling
Virtual Building
Architecture Design
2D and 3D Production Management
Combining and Reviewing 3D Modeling
Combine Designs into one model
Report indifferences in 3D project models and tract project status
Identify communicate and manage changes
Digital Technology Integration
Visualization
Scope Clarification
Partial Trade Coordination
Collision Detection/Avoidance
Design Validation
Construction Sequencing Planning
/Phasing Plans/
Logistics
Marketing Presentations
Options Analysis
Value Engineering Analysis
Walk-throughs and Fly-through
Virtual Mock-Ups
Sight Line Studies
2D conversions
3D designs
4D Model
5D Model
A BIM Use is defined as a method of applying Building Information Modeling during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.
Interference Management
Collision Detection
Interference Detection
Design Coordination
MEP Coordination
Clash Detection
(computer integrated construction research program)
a process in which Clash Detection software is used during the coordination process to determine field conflicts by comparing 3D models of building systems
Coordination
Collision Avoidance
Clash prevention
Spatial Coordination
Energy Analysis
Simulating potential energy use
or
Monitoring operational energy Use
Qualify
Capture
Quantify
Monitor
to characterize or identify facility elements’ status
to collect information regarding the performance of facility elements and systems
Prescribe
Arrange
Size
to determine the need for and select specific facility elements
to determine the magnitude and scale of facility elements
to determine location and placement of facility elements
Coordinate
Validate
Forecast
to ensure the efficiency and harmony of the relationship of facility elements
to predict the future performance of the facility and facility elements
to check or prove accuracy of facility information and that it is logical and reasonable
Visualize
Transform
Document
Draw
to form a realistic representation of a facility or facility elements
to make a symbolic representation of the facility and facility elements
to create a record of facility information including the information necessary to precisely specify facility elements
to modify information and translate it to be received by another process
Fabricate
Control
Regulate
Assemble
to use facility information to manufacture the elements of a facility
to use facility information to bring together the separate elements of a facility
to use facility information to inform the operation of a facility element
to use facility information to physically manipulate the operation of executing equipment
Element
Discipline
Phase
Development
Level of
Terms
Definitions
Attributes
Relationships
Classes
STANDARD
provides a shared vocabulary which is utilized to model (or express) the Uses of BIM, including the type of objects (or terms), and concepts, properties, and relationships that exist.
The BIM Use Ontology
Uses of BIM are the methods of applying Building Information Modeling during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.
What can the ontology
be used for?
Better Communication
Standardization
Procurement Language
Information Delivery Manuals
Model View Definitions
Standardized Process Maps
Standardized Information Exchanges
BIM Guides and Guidelines
Scope of Work
Program Of Requirements
a common language of the Uses
of Building Information Modeling
What is the
ontology about?
Defining
Domain and Scope
Documenting Terms
Compiling Term List
Combining and Reviewing 3D Modeling
Combine Designs into one model
Report indifferences in 3D project models and tract project status
Identify communicate and manage changes
Digital Technology Integration
BIM 3D parametric modeling
3D architectural visualization
3D architectural rendering
3d architectural modeling
3D model clash detection
Mechanical inference modeling
BIM & 3D coordination modeling
Interactive Visualization
Virtual Modeling
Constructability Modeling
Program Validation
Design Validation
Sustainability
FFE
Prefabrication
Safety
Design Coordination
QTO
4D Scheduling
Field Documentation
Site Logistics
Laser Scanning
Model Based Layout
Virtual Mock ups
Clash detection
As-builts
Facility Information Model
Augmented/Immersive Reality
Site Selection/Location planning
Site Suitability/Alternatives analysis
Site circulation/parking/vehicle routing
Permitting/zoning review
Visualization - Building Skins
Visualization - Textures
View Shed analysis
Drainage analysis
Erosion control analysis
Height analysis
Airspace encroachments
Shadow analysis (solar potential)
Security planning
Evacuation routing
Temporal Analysis Historical
Temporal Analysis Existing
Temporal Analysis Future
Economic Analysis
Demographics
Soil Conditions
Transportation
Source locations of building products (LEED analysis)
Emergency Management/Security
Total Cost of Ownership/Lifecycle Analysis
GIS-based Facilities management (maintain 3-D architectural/structural models)
MEP/data network routing/analysis
Space Management/optimization
Move management
Asset management
Public Safety - Security
Public Safety - Fire Protection
Public Safety - Evacuation routing
Public Safety - Hazardous materials storage
Way-Finding - Proximity/routing
Way-Finding - ADA compliant routes
Interior Space analyses - Areas (organizational, operations, leasing, etc.)
Interior Space analyses - Elevation
Interior Space analyses - Volumes
Energy Management - Real-time sensor display
Energy Management - Environmental contaminant analysis
Existing As-built architectural/structural models
Existing As-built MEP/data networks
Security planning
Evacuation routing
Existing Conditions Modeling
Cost Estimation
Phase Planning
4D Modeling
Programming
Site Analysis
Design Review
Design Authoring
Structural Analysis
Lighting Analysis
Energy Analysis
Mechanical Analysis
Engineering Analysis
LEED Evaluation
Sustainability Evaluation
Program Validation
Design Validation
Sustainability
FFE
Prefabrication
Safety
Design Coordination
QTO
4D Scheduling
Field Documentation
Site Logistics
Laser Scanning
Model Based Layout
Virtual Mock ups
Clash detection
As-builts
Facility Information Model
Augmented/Immersive Reality
Site Selection/Location planning
Site Suitability/Alternatives analysis
Site circulation/parking/vehicle routing
Permitting/zoning review
Visualization - Building Skins
Visualization - Textures
View Shed analysis

Site Logistics
Field verification
Facilities Deliverables
Space Management and Validation
Record Modeling
 3D Coordination
Design Authoring
Energy Analysis
Design Reviews
Programming
Current Working Estimate divided by the Programmed Amount
Commissioning
Sustainable Design
Sustainable Documentation
  3D Trade Coordination and Digital Fabrication
4D Scheduling
Site Logistics Model
Detailed Modeling
programming
design coordination
subtrade coordination
drawing production
quantity take off (for field production planning using Location Based Scheduling)
scheduling (model-based CPM and LBS
 prefabrica
Energy analysis
Solar radiation analysis
Reverberation time acoustic analysis
"General interface for multiple computational fl uid dynamic
analyses"
Heat loss and gain
Heating and cooling loads
Dynamic thermal simulation
HVAC plant simulation
Sun shading
Simulates natural ventilation and mixed-mode systems
Interior computational fl uid dynamics application
Value engineering
Capital cost estimates
Estimates lifetime operating costs
Ductwork layout and sizing
Pipework systems
Building evacuation
Elevator simulation
Energy simulation
Energy simulation
Equipment simulation
Building product information
Space layout
Space Names for Assessment
Space program validation:
Preliminary circulation and security assessment:
Preliminary energy analysis:
Preliminary cost estimate
Conceptual Design
as-built conditions
laser scanning
point clouds
surveying
analysis"
"Design confi guration/
scenario planning"
"Building system
analysis/simulation"
"Design communication/
review"
"Quantity takeoff and
cost estimation"
"Design coordination
(clash detection)"
Schedule simulation/4D
Project controls
Prefabrication
Pro forma analysis
Operation simulation
"Commissioning and
asset management"
Cost Reliability and Management
Sustainability
Schedule Management
automate design,
simulate operations
offsite fabrication.
"visual
simulation"
Design Assessment
spatial analysis.
programmatic requirements
rapid spatial anlysis
rendered walkthrough
4D snapshot
reviewing
Real-time confi guration,
Simulate facility operations
crowd behavior
emergency evacuation scenarios
energy analysis
prefabrication
3D coordination
"constructability
analysis"
Building Commissioning
populate a facility management database
BIM asset management
4D financial model
design coordination
BIM Estimating Tools
Space object support
Merging capabilities.
Updating.
Sensor and control monitoring.
hospital procedure simulation
emergency evacuation or response simulations
real-time visualization or rendering tools
Financial asset management data
As-built schedule and cost information
Manufactured product information
Spaces and functions
Emergency information
Activity status
Sensor data
"facilities management
work orders"
appraisal
"facilities management
work orders"
Pro Forma Analysis
Scenario Exploration
Program Compliance
Building Performance
Operation Simulation
Code Compliance
Cost
Coordination
Schedule
Prefabrication
Configuration
Commissioning
Facility Management
Financial Asset management
Operation Simulation
As–Built
Configuration (retrofit)
External lighting and signage
External building cleaning and maintenance
Landscaping, fountains, and planting
Accessibility assessment
Cost estimation
Design and analysis/simulation of all building systems,
Structure
Mechanical and air handling systems
Emergency alarm/control systems
Lighting
Acoustics
Curtain wall systems
Energy conservation and air quality
Vertical and horizontal circulation
Security
Site planning, including parking, drainage, roadways
Analysis of primary functions
Financial and cash fl ow analyses
Construction documentation
BIM for design and analysis
conceptual design,
design for fabrication.”
spatial area
"functional and
economic viability"
"development of
the building program"
3D Sketching
Lighting simulator
 3D Coordination
Design Authoring
Energy Analysis
Design Reviews
Programming
Current Working Estimate divided by the Programmed Amount
Commissioning
Sustainable Design
Sustainable Documentation
  3D Trade Coordination and Digital Fabrication
4D Scheduling
Site Logistics Model
Detailed Modeling
programming
design coordination
subtrade coordination
drawing production
quantity take off (for field production planning using Location Based Scheduling)
scheduling (model-based CPM and LBS
 prefabrication 
logistics
Trimble control and layout (OSHPD project actually building and validating install to the model, paper follows the model - is formality for OSHPD's sake)
change management
field verified as-builting
commissioning (pushing/pulling information between Tekla and database)
all "Information" rolling into FM (CMMS and CAFM)
Energy Analysis
Sustainablity Analysis
Water Planning
grey water reuse
air quality
eqonomic/traffic planning
lighting planning and automation
Systems Layout
Systems Analysis
MEP Analysis
Discipline Ananlysis
BIM Model Creation Tools (Class)
takeoff
Specifications
Energy Analysis
Clash dectection
4D simulation
Work packet coordination
Quantity take-offs
Supports automated fabrication
Interfaces to multiple structural analysis tools
"Interfaces to multiple structural
analysis tools"
Erectability checks
Supports automated fabrication
Automatic connection design
Automated Design
Generative Design
Synchronized schedules
Duct and pipe sizing/pressure calculations
HVAC and electrical system design
Conduit and cable tray modeling
Synchronized schedules
Interfaces for fabrication
Automatic duct sizing based on space demands
Electrical circuit manager
Interference checking
Radiator sizing and number
Systems Distriubution Routing and Sizing
Plumbing pipe sizing
Exchange data with energy analysis
Feeder and branch circuiting
Automated circuiting and labeling
Online design checks for circuit load, length, and number of devices
Automated fixture arrangement
Bidirectional links to third-party lighting analysis programs:
detailed framing and derivation of a cut lumber schedule,
framing and structural layout
automated reinforcing layout and connections
model generation
drawing production
specification wirting
cost estimation
clash and error detection
energy analysis
rendering
scheduling
visualization
quanitity takeoffs
connection detailing
Coordination is above clash detection
System Routing
Complex Curved Surface Modeling:
issue tracking
structural
energy
lighting,
costs
Analysis
clash detection and issues tracking for design coordination;
purchasing and materials tracking
task and equipment scheduling for construction.
Data Exchange
building model generation
fabrication-level building systems,
Drawing Generation
Drawing Production
Structural
Mechanical
Energy and environmental:
Visualization:
Facility management:
site analysis,
manufacturing components
site planning.
quantity takeoff for cost estimation
4D simulation
scheduling and quantity takeoffs
specifi cations
conceptual design tools
Model Authoring
Generative Components
2D detailing and annotation
4D simulation.
landscaping tool,
lighting simulation
structural engineering.
full detail editing
automated fabrication.
CNC fabrication
Structural design and analysis of reinforced concrete
Structural design and analysis
Structural analysis
Jobsite layout,
survey equipment
Product and technical information for manufacturers and distributors
Project management
conceptual design from a cost of constructio
operating cost basis
"Space planning and
program compliance"

BIM Facility Management
Design Analyzing with BIM
Energy Modeling with BIM
Post Occupancy Management
Coordination Clash Detection
Construction documentation
BIM Base Lean Construction
BIM for Engineering
BIM for Architectural
BIM for Structural
Structural 3D Modeling
3D Model for Wood Structure
Steel Structural Detailing
BIM for Precast Concrete
BIM For Constrion
Quantity Take-off /Estimating
Cost Engineer with BIM
Construction Scheduling
Substantial Building Design
3D Wire Frame Modeling
BIM For Fabrication
Coordination Clash Detection
Creation of 3D Model to 2D
Generate Qualified Leads
Digital Project Viewer
3D Geometry Building
2D Drafting and Detailing
BIM in Construction Industry
BIM Service for Building Owners
BIM Service for Contractor
Requirements of Typical Job
Scheduling with BIM
Shop Drawing
Steel Detailing
Application of BIM for public projects
Pre-Design and Programming
RFP Competition
Site Conditions - Existing Conditions and New Construction
Architectural Model - Spatial and Material Design Models
System Models - Structural and MEPF design
Cost estimation
4D Scheduling and Sequencing
5D Estimation
Energy Consumption Simulation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Design Visualization
Present architectural Design
Space utilization
3D clash detection and interference management
4D clash detection and interference management
Cost estimation or management
Safety analysis of management
Present scheduling as 4D animation
Energy analysis or management
Structural analysis
Engage neighbors or users in understanding construction process
Enhance submittal / shop drawing review
Enhance shop fabrication process
Drive shop fabrication process
communication
visualization
rendering
coordination
4D sequencing
site logistics
field verification
facilities deliverables
Pro Forma Analysis
Scenario Exploration
Program Compliance
Building Proformance
Operation Simualtion
Cost
Coordination
Schedule
Prefabrication
Configuration
Commisioning
Facility Management
Financial Asset Management
Opeation Simuation
Build
Retrofit
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Check against program
Drawing and Document Production
Drawing Generation
Site Analysis
Report indifferences in 3D project models and tract project status
Identify communicate and manage changes
Digital Technology Integration
BIM 3D parametric modeling
3D architectural visualization
3D architectural rendering
3d architectural modeling
3D model clash detection
Mechanical inference modeling
BIM & 3D coordination modeling
Interactive Visualization
Virtual Modeling
Constructability Modeling
Structural 3D Model Steel Detailing
Structural Drafting
Steel connection Detailing
Steel Fabrication Detailing
BIM As-Built Documents
BIM Virtual Modeling/Mock up
BIM Management
BIM Facility Management
Design Analyzing with BIM
Energy Modeling with BIM
Post Occupancy Management
BIM Content Development
Structural 3D Model Steel Detailing
Structural Drafting
Steel connection Detailing
Steel Fabrication Detailing
BIM As-Built Documents
BIM Virtual Modeling/Mock up
BIM Management
Existing Conditions Modeling
Lighting Analysis
3D Coordination
quanitity Takeoffs
Cost Estimation
Pre-Design
Cost Estimating
Quantity Take-off
Early Energy Analysis
Code Analysis
Toliet Fixture Counts
Occupancy Analysis
Clash Detection
Construction Phase
Early Design
LEED Documentation
Energy Analysis
Communication
Visulaization
Rendering
Coordination
4D Sequencing
Site Logistics
Field verification
Facilities Deliverables
Space Management and Validation
Record Modeling

"Energy (environmental)

Analysis/Simulation
acoustic analysis
air fl ow simulations
Lighting simulation
"Analysis of Conformance to Building Code Requirements
and Regulations"
"Building Functional
Analysis"
Structural Analysis
Energy Analysis
"Mechanical Equipment
Simulation"
Space Program Validation
Cost Estimation
Target costing
Simulating Organizational Performance within Facilities
simulating people flows
building systems layout
Mechanical & HVAC layout
Electrical layout
Piping layout
Elevators/Escalators layout
Site Planning layout
Structural layout
trip analyses
Drawing Markup
Version Comparision
Problem Identification
Systems Layout include Temporary facilities
Construction Systems Layout
BUILDING OBJECT MODELS
Temporal Analysis Existing
Temporal Analysis Future
Economic Analysis
Demographics
Soil Conditions
Transportation
Source locations of building products (LEED analysis)
Emergency Management/Security
Total Cost of Ownership/Lifecycle Analysis
GIS-based Facilities management (maintain 3-D architectural/structural models)
MEP/data network routing/analysis
Space Management/optimization
Move management
Asset management
Public Safety - Security
Public Safety - Fire Protection
Public Safety - Evacuation routing
Public Safety - Hazardous materials storage
Way-Finding - Proximity/routing
Way-Finding - ADA compliant routes
Interior Space analyses - Areas (organizational, operations, leasing, etc.)
Interior Space analyses - Elevation
Interior Space analyses - Volumes
Energy Management - Real-time sensor display
Energy Management - Environmental contaminant analysis
Existing As-built architectural/structural models
Existing As-built MEP/data networks
Security planning
Evacuation routing
Existing Conditions Modeling
Cost Estimation
Phase Planning
4D Modeling
Programming
Site Analysis
Code Validation
3D Coordination
Site Utilization Planning
Construction System Design
Digital Fabrication
3D Control and Planning
Record Modeling
Building Maintenance Scheduling
Building System Analysis
Asset Management
Space Management / Tracking
Disaster Planning
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Project Communication and Model Review Tools
Model Viewing and Review
Model Servers
Facility and Asset Management Tools
Operation Simulation Tools
Space Planning
Analysis/Simulation Software
Cost Estimation
Collaboration
Experimental Design Using a Design ‘Workbench’
Building System Layouts
Drawing and Document Production
Specifications
Design - Construction Integration
Design Review
Clash Detection
Quantity Takeoff and Cost Estimating
Construction Analysis and Cost Estimating
Cost and Schedule Control
Offsite Fabrication
Verification, Guidance, and Tracking of Construction Activities
Spatial Program Validation
3D Laser Scanning
4D Phasing
Energy Performance and Operations
Circulation and Security Validation
Space and Medical Equipment Validation
Architecture – Spatial and Material Design Models
Energy Analysis
Design Visualization for Communication, Functional Analysis, & Constructability
Building System Models – Structural, MEPF, and Interiors
Master plan Space Scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
Communication of Construction scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
COBIE/Commissioning
Clash Detection/Coordination
Virtual Testing and Balancing
Evaluating physical security & survivability
Early MEP design
3D – Virtual functionality viewing and testing of the design
5D – Material take-offs & cost estimating
Creating a interactive virtual workspace for the Design Team to achieve integrated design goals
Integrating information, e.g., electronic specifications that are tied to the BIM
Achieving automated code checking
Repeatable modular construction components to speed construction erection time
Modular construction & off-site fabrication
Visualization
Fabrication/shop drawings
Code reviews
Forensic analysis
Facilities management
Cost estimating
Construction sequencing
Conflict, interference and collision detection
Visualization
Scope Clarification
Partial Trade Coordination
Collision Detection/Avoidance
Design Validation
Construction Sequencing Planning/Phasing Plans/
Logistics
Marketing Presentations
Options Analysis
Value Engineering Analysis
Walk-throughs and Fly-through
Virtual Mock-Ups
Sight Line Studies
2D conversions
3D designs
4D Model
5D Model
Creating and Reviewing 3D Models
3D Modeling
Virtual Building
Architecture Design
2D and 3D Production Management
Combining and Reviewing 3D Modeling
Combine Designs into one model
BIM Content Development
Construction documentation
BIM Base Lean Construction
BIM for Engineering
BIM for Architectural
BIM for Structural
Structural 3D Modeling
3D Model for Wood Structure
Steel Structural Detailing
BIM for Precast Concrete
BIM For Constrion
Quantity Take-off /Estimating
Cost Engineer with BIM
Construction Scheduling
Substantial Building Design
3D Wire Frame Modeling
BIM For Fabrication
Drainage analysis
Erosion control analysis
Height analysis
Airspace encroachments
Shadow analysis (solar potential)
Security planning
Evacuation routing
Temporal Analysis Historical
Creation of 3D Model to 2D
Generate Qualified Leads
Digital Project Viewer
3D Geometry Building
2D Drafting and Detailing
BIM in Construction Industry
BIM Service for Building Owners
BIM Service for Contractor
Requirements of Typical Job
Scheduling with BIM
Shop Drawing
Steel Detailing
Application of BIM for public projects
Pre-Design and Programming
RFP Competition
Site Conditions - Existing Conditions and New Construction
Architectural Model - Spatial and Material Design Models
System Models - Structural and MEPF design
Cost estimation
4D Scheduling and Sequencing
5D Estimation
Energy Consumption Simulation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Design Visualization
Present architectural Design
Space utilization
3D clash detection and interference management
4D clash detection and interference management
Cost estimation or management
Safety analysis of management
Present scheduling as 4D animation
Energy analysis or management
Structural analysis
Engage neighbors or users in understanding construction process
Enhance submittal / shop drawing review
Enhance shop fabrication process
Drive shop fabrication process
communication
visualization
rendering
coordination
4D sequencing
site logistics
field verification
facilities deliverables
Pro Forma Analysis
Scenario Exploration
Program Compliance
Building Proformance
Operation Simualtion
Cost
Coordination
Schedule
Prefabrication
Configuration
Commisioning
Facility Management
Financial Asset Management
Opeation Simuation
Build
Retrofit
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Check against program
Drawing and Document Production
Drawing Generation
Site Analysis
Existing Conditions Modeling
Lighting Analysis
3D Coordination
quanitity Takeoffs
Cost Estimation
Pre-Design
Cost Estimating
Quantity Take-off
Early Energy Analysis
Code Analysis
Toliet Fixture Counts
Occupancy Analysis
Clash Detection
Construction Phase
Early Design
LEED Documentation
Energy Analysis
Communication
Visulaization
Rendering
Coordination
4D Sequencing
Design Review
Design Authoring
Structural Analysis
Lighting Analysis
Energy Analysis
Mechanical Analysis
Engineering Analysis
LEED Evaluation
Sustainability Evaluation
Code Validation
3D Coordination
Site Utilization Planning
Construction System Design
Digital Fabrication
3D Control and Planning
Record Modeling
Building Maintenance Scheduling
Building System Analysis
Asset Management
Space Management / Tracking
Disaster Planning
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Project Communication and Model Review Tools
Model Viewing and Review
Model Servers
Facility and Asset Management Tools
Operation Simulation Tools
Space Planning
Analysis/Simulation Software
Cost Estimation
Collaboration
Experimental Design Using a Design ‘Workbench’
Building System Layouts
Drawing and Document Production
Specifications
Design - Construction Integration
Design Review
Clash Detection
Quantity Takeoff and Cost Estimating
Construction Analysis and Cost Estimating
Cost and Schedule Control
Offsite Fabrication
Verification, Guidance, and Tracking of Construction Activities
Spatial Program Validation
3D Laser Scanning
4D Phasing
Energy Performance and Operations
Circulation and Security Validation
Space and Medical Equipment Validation
Architecture – Spatial and Material Design Models
Energy Analysis
Design Visualization for Communication, Functional Analysis, & Constructability
Building System Models – Structural, MEPF, and Interiors
Master plan Space Scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
Communication of Construction scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
COBIE/Commissioning
Clash Detection/Coordination
Virtual Testing and Balancing
Evaluating physical security & survivability
Early MEP design
3D – Virtual functionality viewing and testing of the design
5D – Material take-offs & cost estimating
Creating a interactive virtual workspace for the Design Team to achieve integrated design goals
Integrating information, e.g., electronic specifications that are tied to the BIM
Achieving automated code checking
Repeatable modular construction components to speed construction erection time
Modular construction & off-site fabrication
Visualization
Fabrication/shop drawings
Code reviews
Forensic analysis
Facilities management
Cost estimating
Construction sequencing
Conflict, interference and collision detection
Visualization
Scope Clarification
Partial Trade Coordination
Collision Detection/Avoidance
Design Validation
Construction Sequencing Planning/Phasing Plans/
Logistics
Marketing Presentations
Options Analysis
Value Engineering Analysis
Walk-throughs and Fly-through
Virtual Mock-Ups
Sight Line Studies
2D conversions
3D designs
4D Model
5D Model
Creating and Reviewing 3D Models
3D Modeling
Virtual Building
Architecture Design
2D and 3D Production Management
Remove duplicate terms
What does each term mean
Defining Terms
Collect information on the Uses of BIM
Acquiring
Knowledge
Develop a comprehensive list of software
Determine the core functions of each software
Software Analysis
Reviewed available literature for BIM Uses
Content Analysis
Industry Analysis
Appeal to industry leaders for list of BIM Services
Integrating Terms
Define
Characteristics
Determine
Hierarchy
Group Similar Terms
Define
Classes
Generating - The Generating class of BIM Uses is those Uses in which the facility information is created.
Self-Generating - to create facility information without human interact exception establishing parameters.
Authoring - to create information about the facility design
Programming - to determine need for facility spaces
Scheduling - to determine the need for and prescribe specific facility elements
Laying out - to determine location and arrangement of facility elements
Processing - to change facility information from one state to another
Coordinating - to bring different facility elements into a relationship that will ensure efficiency or harmony
Forecasting - to predict the future performance of the facility
Schedule - to plan an event to take place at a particular time
Temporal - to predict the performance of the facility or facility elements over time
Flow - to predict the circulation of the facility systems
Scenario - to predict possible situations within the facility such as crowd flow, evacuation procedures and other disasters
Financial - to predict the future monetary elements of the facility
Energy - to predict future energy use of the facility or facility elements
Analyzing - to methodically examine elements of the facility to gain a better understanding of it 
Validation - to check or prove accuracy of facility information and that is logical and reasonable
Program (Space) - to ensure facility contains the necessary space to meet its desired function
Element - to ensure the facility contains the necessary facility elements to support the facility such as MEP equipment
Sustainability - to ensure the facility is designed, constructed, and operated sustainability
Constructability / Operability - to ensure facility is able to constructed and operated effectively
Usability - to an ensure the facility can perform its established purpose effectively
Code - to ensure facility meets established codes
Communicating - to share or exchange facility information
Visualizing - to form an image of a facility or facility elements
Modeling - to generate objects with intelligence to allow the model objects to emulate the actual facility element
Drawing - to make a symbolic representation of the facility and facility elements
Annotating - to add to notes to give further explanation of facility information
Documenting - to create a record of facility information
Condition - to communicate the current status of the facility and facility elements
Specifying- to describe or identify facility elements precisely or state the precise requirements for a facility element
Executing- to put into effect facility information
Controlling- to use facility information to regulate executing equipment
Assembling - to use facility information to fit together the separate components of a facility
Fabricating - to use facility information to manufacture the elements of a facility
Managing - to handle or direct the use of facility information
Tracking - to follow and note the facility elements including spaces
Monitoring- to observe the performance of facility systems
Regulating - to control the operation of facility elements
Gathering  - to collect, to bring together facility information
Quantifying -to express or measure the amount of a facility element
Condition documenting-   to record the state of the facility or facility elements
Commissioning - to bring facility informatino into working condition and prepare for future use
Evaluating
Ensure that the ontology is comprehensive, consistent, extensible, and easy to use.
What is the Purpose for implementing a BIM Use?
What classifies as a BIM Use?
What are the specific BIM Uses?
What are the important attributes of each BIM Use?
How do the BIM Uses relate to one another?
What are the major classes of BIM Uses?
Is there a logical class hierarchy for the BIM Uses?
Is the ontology applicable to the domain of BIM Uses?
Competency Questions
Mapped 550 BIM Uses
Ensured that all Uses fit within Ontological Structure
Mapping
Researched established ontological structures
Ensured consistency with established methodology and structures
Documented differences
Comparison
Industry Interviews
Focus Group Meetings
Projects
Organizations
Implementation
Industry acceptance of ontology
Accreditation
3 Total Sessions
2 Hour Sessions
Personnel
3-5 Participants
Logistics
Reviewed Interview Session Objectives
Reviewed Ontology Objective and Scope
Reviewed BIM Use Ontology
Explored and Mapped additional BIM Uses
Evaluated through Survey
1 to 1.5 Hours
1 on 1
19 Interviews
Logistics
Penn State OPP
MBP
USACE
Potential
Organizations
Comprehensive
Competency Questions
Mapping
Comparison
Industry Review
Focus Groups
Implementation
TOTAL
Consistency
Extensible
Ease of Use
Terms
Definitions
Structure
Attributes
4
4
3
3
5
5
4
4
METHOD vs VALIDATION
Completed
On Going
Reviewed Focus Group Meeting Objectives
Reviewed Ontology Objective and Scope
Reviewed BIM Use Ontology
Detailed Review of the Terms and Definitions
Evaluated through Survey
Validate Ontology Structure
Validate Terms and Descriptions
Ballot for U.S. National BIM Standard
Principles with OmniClass
not part of dissertation
Documentation
make it usable
with a guide and
implementation resources
integrating ontology within:
to represent or preserve the current status of the facility and facility elements
to express or measure the amount of a facility element
to collect or organize facility information
to create or author information about the facility
to examine elements of the facility to gain a better understanding of it
to present information about a facility in a method in which it can be shared or exchanged
to make or control a physical element using facility information
Financial
Energy
Flow
Scenario
Temporal
The system of the facility on which the BIM Use will be implemented
The point in the facility’s lifecycle at which the BIM Use will be implemented
The party by whom the BIM Use will be implemented
The degree of reliability to which the BIM Use will be implemented
2013
Inception
Conceptualization
Criteria
Design
Coordination
Implementation
Handover
Operations
Closure
OmniClass Table 31 - Phases
A phase is a period of time in the duration of a construction project identified by the overall character of the construction processes which occur within it.
OmniClass Table 33 - Disciplines
Substructure
Shell
Interiors
Services
Equipment and Furnishings
Special Construction and Demolition
Sitework
OmniClass - Table 21 - Elements
An Element is a major component, assembly, or “construction entity part which, in itself or in combination with other parts, fulfills a predominating function of the construction entity” (ISO 12006-2). Predominating functions include, but are not limited to, supporting, enclosing, servicing, and equipping a facility. Functional descriptions can also include a process or an activity.
Determine Purpose
Planning Disciplines
Design Disciplines
Investigation Disciplines
Project Management Disciplines
Construction Disciplines
Facility Use Disciplines
Support Disciplines
Elaborate on Characteristics
Element
Discipline
Phase
Development
Level of
The system of the facility on which the BIM Use will be implemented
The point in the facility lifecycle at which the BIM Use will be implemented
The party by whom the BIM Use will be implemented
The degree of reliability to which the BIM Use will be implemented
Inception
Conceptualization
Criteria
Design
Coordination
Implementation
Handover
Operations
Closure
OnmiClass Table 31 - Phases
A phase is a period of time in the duration of a construction project identified by the overall character of the construction processes which occur within it.
OnmiClass Table 33 - Disciplines
Substructure
Shell
Interiors
Services
Equipment and Furnishings
Special Construction and Demolition
Sitework
OmniClass - Table 21 - Elements
An Element is a major component, assembly, or “construction entity part which, in itself or in combination with other parts, fulfills a predominating function of the construction entity” (ISO 12006-2). Predominating functions include, but are not limited to, supporting, enclosing, servicing, and equipping a facility. Functional descriptions can also include a process or an activity.
Planning Disciplines
Design Disciplines
Investigation Disciplines
Project Management Disciplines
Construction Disciplines
Facility Use Disciplines
Support Disciplines
Process
Information
Infrastructure
Maturity
Impact
References
Identify Implementation
the advantage or disadvantages gained by implementing a BIM Use
the degree to which an organization excels performing a BIM Use
the data about the facility (including both geometric and attribute data such as model and serial number) necessary in order to achieve the objective of the BIM Use
a source for addition information concerning the implementation of a BIM Use
the elements necessary to implement a BIM Use
How will BIM and the selected BIM Uses be executed on facility or an organization
Attributes
Term
A word or phrase used to describe a thing or to express a concept
Objective
Description
The goal, aim or purpose for implementing a BIM Use
An account of the BIM Use including all the relevant aspects, qualities, and properties
A word or phrase that means nearly the same as standardized BIM Use Term. It may have had the same meaning but has since been superseded.
Synonym
Tetralogy of BIM
(Dept. of Veterans Affairs 2010)
Disciplines are the practice areas and specialties of the actors (participants) that carry out the processes and procedures that occur during the life cycle of a construction entity.
Determine Strategy
Mission
Goals
Objectives
Vision
Defines the purpose of the facility or organization
Specific aims which the facility or organization wishes to accomplish.
The picture of the facility or organization after it has integrated BIM
Specific BIM tasks or steps that when accomplished move toward goals
Example Mission
Example Vision
Example Goals
Example Objectives
The purpose of the facility is to optimize the business practices of the organization by providing a high performance and flexible functioning facility.
Create an accurate, valuable, and reusable Building Information Model that assists with design and construction process as well as optimizes the operations of the facility.
Decrease the management cost of the facility over its life compared to typical office buildings
Reduce the duration of the design and construction process compared to previous projects of this size
Distinctly document the conditions of the facility over its life
Optimize the facility stakeholders ability to review the facility prior to its renovation
Optimize the facility stakeholders ability to review and understand the construction process prior to commencement of construction
Optimize Communication between facility stakeholders

Implement BIM to reduce the overall lifecycle cost of facility management compared to the facility management costs of other facilities.
Use BIM to explore methods to reduce the design and construction process compared to similar renovation
Use BIM to develop a record of the facility conditions over the life of the facility.
Use BIM to enable review of the facility prior to its renovation by the facility stakeholders.
Use BIM to enable communication of the construction process to facility stakeholders
Use BIM to communicate facility information between project stakeholders

One system "for all people for all time"

The same must be done for BIM
1791 - France establishes metric system
Standard naming conventions
Less errors switching between systems
Future need
Easy to use
Allows for international commerce
The Metrication of BIM
1973 - Most have completed metrification
We will have a common language that will allow for the exchange of BIM processes and ideas.

Improve performance
Reduce business risk
Encourage innovation
Encourage efficiency
Facilitate commerce

the specific objective to be achieved when applying Building Information Modeling during a facility’s life
Internal
External
0 - Non-Existent
1 - Initial
2 - Managed
3 - Defined
4 - Quantitatively Managed
5 - Optimizing
BIM Uses which have been
implemented and/or
documented
BIM Uses
which interact with
the data within a model
Domain:
Scope:
- Defining
- Elaborating
- Implementing

What is Next?
Implementation Tools
Large Scale Implementation
Information Exchanges
Accreditation
Industry Adoption

1799 - Metrification begins in France
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