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GCSE PE Theory

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Danielle Trudgeon

on 28 March 2014

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Transcript of GCSE PE Theory

GCSE PE Theory
Revision Session

Year 11 Topics- Body Systems
What you need to know
For each body system you will need to know:
-The functions of the system- what does it actually do?
what the system is made up of
-The immediate effects of exercise on that system
-The long term effects of exercise on that system
In this presentation you will look at the four different body systems: The cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular and skeletal system
the cardiovascular system
What is it made up of?
This system is made up of three things:
-The heart
-Blood Vessels
-transport oxygen in the blood to working muscles
-remove waste products
-reutrn the blood to the lungs for reoxygenation
Key Terms
Heart Rate
Stroke Volume
Cardiac output
The number of times the heart beats per minute
the amount of blood leaving the heart each BEAT
the amount of blood leaving the heart each MINUTE
heart rate x stroke volume = cardiac output
Immediate Effects of Exercise
What happens when you start exercising to your cardiovascular system?
-Increase in heart rate
-Increase in stroke volume
-Increase in systolic blood pressure

The benefits of these changes are:

-Increased oxygen delivery and increase removal of carbon dioxide.
-Increased rate of blood flow and therefore increased oxygen delivery.
Long term effects
-Increase in size and strength of the heart (cardiac hypertrophy)
-Increase in stroke volume
The benefits of these adaptations are:
-Good for health as it reduces the chance of coronary heart disease
-good for fitness as the heart can contract more forcefully
-more blood is ejected from the heart each beat, so there is increased oxygen delivery.
Other long term effects
-Lower resting HR
-Increased maximum CO during exercise
-Faster return to resting HR
-Increased capillarisation
-Increased number of red blood cells
The benefits of these are:
-greater training zone
-increased oxygen delivery to working muscles
-more efficient recovery
Blood Pressure
The force of blood pushing against the blood vessel wall.
There are two types
The pressure in the arteries whilst the heart is contracting
The pressure in the arteries whilst the heart is relaxing
Diastolic blood pressure is lower than systolic blood pressure because blood flow is slower whilst the heart is relaxing.

The average blood pressure is 120/80

Diet and your cardiovascular system
Fats can build up in the blood vessels resulting in high blood pressure and high cholesterol
Exam Questions
Respiratory System
What is it made up of?
Key terms
Inspiration & Expiration
short term effects
long term effects
Exam Questions
The muscular System
Antagonistic pairs
Exam Questions
High cholesterol can be caused by having a diet with too much fat. There are two types of cholesterol- one good and one bad.

Low density lipoprotein is the bad cholesterol that can cause deposits to build up in the arteries.
High density lipoprotein is the good cholesterol that can take away cholesterol to be broken down.
The muscles you need to know
Antagonistic pairs
Types of contraction
Types of muscles
short term effects
Long term effects
The bones!
Range of movement
Skeletal system and exercise

Intercostal muscles

Total Lung Capacity (TLC)=
The total volume of air in your lungs after your biggest breath in
Tidal Volume (TV)=
During normal breathing, the total amount breathed in and out in one cycle.
Vital Capacity (VC)=
the maximum you can forcibly breathe in and out.
Skeletal muscles work together to provide movement of the joints.
While one muscle contracts, another relaxes to create movement.
The muscle contracting is the AGONIST
The muscle relaxing is the ANTAGONIST
There are two different types of muscle contraction, used for different purposes.

ISOTONIC- contractions that result in movement
ISOMETRIC- contractions where there is no visible movement.
The functions of the skeleton are to




Hinge Joints
Located at: knee and elbow
Movement available: flexion, extension

Ball and Socket Joints
Located at: hip and shoulder
Movement available: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation
-Increased breathing rate
-Increased depth of breathing
-Increased demand for oxygen
-Increased rate of C02 removal
-Gaseous Exchange
-Oxygen debt
-Stronger diagram
-Stronger inter-costal muscles
-Increased amount of capillaries
-Increased lung capacity
-Increased lung volume
-Increased vital capacity
1. To bring oxygen into the body
2. To take carbon dioxide out of the body
Gaseous Exchange
What is it?
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Where does it take place?
In the alveoli (tiny air sacs in the lungs)
What happens during exercise?
Rate of gaseous exchange increases

Effects of Smoking
-Lung and alveoli damage-less stretchy and less efficient
-Short of breath- hard to get C02 out and O2 in
-Feel more tired/ find exercise harder
-Increase in muscle temperature
-Increased demand for oxygen (due to additional need for energy)
-Increased production of carbon dioxide (formed as a bi-product during energy release)
-Increased lactic acid production (in anaerobic work)
-Muscle Fatigue

-Increased strength of muscles
-Increased muscle hypertrophy
-Increased myoglobin stores
-Ligaments and tendons are stronger.

This benefit of these adaptations are:
-Aids activities requiring strength, power and muscular endurance.
-Improves immediate oxygen supply to muscles
-Better support of joints

There are thre TYPES of muscle:



increased bone density/ stronger bones
-Reduced chance of osteoporosis
-Better posture
-Reduced chance of fractures
Stronger tendons and ligaments
-Better support of joints- more stability.
-Increases production of synovial fluid which lubricates the joint
A fracture is a broken bone. There are different types of fracture:
Compound (open)
Simple (closed)
Stress (small crack)
Greenstick (bends on one side, breaks on the other)
How many bones do you know?
Label the diagram
You won't be able asked to label a skeleton in your exam. However, you may be asked to identify bones being used in various actions.
Have a go at this now...
Have a look at these two examples...
Exam Questions
Be careful with your spelling here, there were a lot of mistakes in the mock exams so learn the correct spellings for key words
Exam Question
Biceps and triceps
Location:Front of upper arm
Role: Flexion of the arm at the elbow
Example:Upwards phase of a bicep curl
Location:Back of upper arm
Role:Extension of the arm at the elbow
Example: Straightening the arms in a chest press
Biceps is the agonist as they are contracting and creating the movement
Here the triceps is the agonist as they are now contracting and the biceps are relaxing
Antagonistic Pairs
quadriceps and hamstrings
Location:front of upper leg
Role: Extension of the lef at the knee
Example: Straightening the leading leg going over a hurdle
Location: back of upper lef
Role: Flexion of the leg at the knee
Example: Bending the trailing leg going over a hurdle
Putting it all together
You have a picture of a rugby player in front of you. In your group identify the:
Joint type

Inspiration (breathing in)

Diaphragm pulls down
Intercostal muscles contract
Chest expands
Pressure decreases
Expiration (breathing out)

Diaphragm relaxes
Intercostal muscles relax
Chest decreases
Pressure increases
Responsible for the movement of your body
This revision seminar
-Make notes on each topic as you go
-When you see this then you will do an activity on that topic.
There will be a number of exam questions throoughout the session for you to have a go at.

At the end of your exam there WILL be two 6 mark questions. These could be on any topic but you must know how to answer this type of question. Here are some hints...
Long Answer Questions
-Take a few minutes to plan your answer.
-Underline key words in the question
-It must be a structured piece of writing.
-Sentences and paragraphs, NOT bullet points!
-Spelling, punctuation and grammar will be marked so make sure you take care and learn those tricky words you often get wrong!
-write as much as you can! Although you don't have to fill the space, writing a couple of lines will not give you full marks.
-Try to impress the examiner- include key words and definitions.
- Use examples where necessary to show you can apply your knowledge
Top Tips
Mark Scheme
REad the question
Understand what the question is asking you!
Happy revising and good luck for your exam!
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