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on 23 June 2014

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Nuradila binti halim
Nurul Awanis binti Muhammad Bakaruddin E20122005543
Siti Nur Azwani Binti Azahar
Hanis Sofea binti Osmera
Siti Nor Kamila binti Masri

1) To promote some ideas and values

2)You may simply be required to do so as a course assignment
Definition of fiction
1) Fiction is the form of any work that includes imagination and theoretical ideas which was invented and imagined by the author

2) Examples; short stories and novels

3) Major elements of fiction are Settings, Characters, Theme, Point of View, Language and Style, and the Plot.
1) Central idea or meaning of a story.

2) Important message of a story. It tells about life or human nature.

3) A story may have more than one theme but one message will probably be the strongest.

Example: In the novel
To Kill a Mockingbird
, the main theme of the story is racism.
Conflict is a struggle between two opposing forces.

1) Interpersonal conflict (External conflict)

2) Internal conflict
Method of Characterisation
1) Omniscient
The author tells the story directly.

2) Limited Omniscient
Told from the character's view in the story.

3) First-person View
Told by the character in the story, using the pronoun 'I'
1) The time and place of a story.

2) May include culture, values and beliefs of the time and place.

3) Helps create a mood or atmosphere.
1) Geographical location
Eg: Tanjung Malim, Perak. Alabama.

2) Time Period
Eg: 1865, WWII

3) Socio-economic characteristics of the location
Eg: wealthy suburbs, quiet town

4) Specific building, room and so forth
Eg: Prison
1) Tone is the writer’s attitude toward a subject.

2) Communicated through words and details that express emotions and evoke emotional response from the readers.

Example: "The doctors said she died of heart disease,
of joy that kills

"The Story Of An Hour" by Kate Chopin
Events that build up a significant pattern of action consists of a beginning, a middle and an end.
The purpose of pattern is to overcome a conflict.
It is formally called a narrative.
Elements of Plot
( Initial Situation)
Also known as introduction or exposition
It "sets the scene" for the rest of narrative
Example: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times". A beginning line in
A Tale of Two

that describes the social and political background of the novel
Rising Action
Incentive Moment
A new event often jostles the smoothness of things and triggers the course of action
A new episode begin when the place and time change, when something really important interrupts, or what has been happening.
The Climax
The critical point at which the central character is about to win or lose all
Falling Action
Resolution or denouement
A tricky part of the narrative to write as the author has to decide which parts of the plot to tie up and what to leave as the questions for the reader to think
The part that tells the reader what happens to the character after the story is finished
Plot Techniques
Frequently involves dilemma

The author waits until the story is moving and then flashes back to reveal biographical data

The author has to choose the significant event or motion of the character without much description

The outcome of a conflict is always hinted at before the climax and resolution

Language and Style
The textual representation of people; sometimes animals or things in a story
1) Main character

2) Usually a good character
1) One who opposes the main character

2)Usually have a bad personality

Example: Mr. Bob Ewell in the novel
To Kill A Mockingbird.
Round Character
1) Convincing, true to life

2) Different and sometimes have a different personalities.
Example: Atticus in the novel
To Kill a Mockingbird
. We usually know him as a calm character but Scout observed that he's unbelievably out of character when he
at the news' about Hitler.
Dynamic Character
A character that changes in personality and thoughts throughout the course of the story because of the events in the story
Example: Scout in the novel
To Kill A Mockingbird
. In the beginning of the story we know her as a child who is quick to temper but after a series of events we see that she's more considerate and think about lots of things.
Flat Character
1) Stereotyped, shallow, symbolic

2) Have one or two obvious personality traits
Example: Mr. Dolphus Raymond in the novel
To Kill a Mockingbird
. He symbolises what became to people who opposes the idea of racism by the crowd.
Static Character
A character that do not change in personality in the course of the story
1) Direct Characterisation
2) Indirect Characterisation
Direct statements by the author
"Jack had been in basic training in Florida and Dottie was there on vacation with her parents. They'd met on the beach and struck up a conversation.
Dottie was the talker, the outgoing one - the extrovert. Jack was too shy around girls to say much at all.

"Furlough-1994" by Harry Mazer
Indirect characterisation; Thoughts
"Moonbeam closed his eyes and pretended to sleep the rest of the way to Bamfield. He couldn't believe what he had gotten himself into.
How had this happened? He'd never held a gun in his life, much less gone hunting for animals.

"Moonbeam Dawson and The Killer Bear" by Jean Okimoto
Indirect characterisation; Words
"It was Kenny Griffin, smiling complacently. "Miss Bird sent me after you 'cause you been gone six years. You're in trouble...yer constipated!" Kenny chortled gleefully.
"Wait'll I tell Caaaathy!"

"Here There Be Tygers" by Stephen King
Indirect characterisation; Actions
The boy held his breath
; he wondered whether his father would hear his heart beating...Through a crack in the counter he could see his father where he stood, one hand held to his high stiff collar..."

"I Spy" by Graham Greene
Indirect characterisation; Appearance
"Miss Kinney was young and blonde and bouncy and had a boyfriend who picked her up after school in a blue Camaro."

"Here There Be Tygers" by Stephen King
Indirect Characterisation
Revealing the character's personality by

1) character's thoughts, words, actions

2) comments from other character

3) character's physical appearance
1) Human vs Human

2) Human vs Nature

3) Human vs Society
Human vs Self
Example: In
Romeo and Juliet
, an external conflict exists between two families. Romeo and Juliet also face and internal conflict about their relationship.
The tone is sarcasm and ironic
The style of an author is determined by the
, the
, phrasing, dialogues, figurative languages and many other aspects of language.
Diction: Author's choice of words.
Syntax: The order of the words.
From these, we can determine the author's style to be elegant, richly detailed, flowing and barely controlled or minimalist, crisp and somehow formal or classic.
Diyanni, R. (2001).
Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, Compact Edition
. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Jamestown Education (2007).
Literature: An Adopted Reader
. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.

The Elements of Fiction
. Retrieved on 20th June 2014 from http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/lit-elements/overview/

Parks, G.
virtuaLit Fiction: Elements of Fiction
. Retrieved on 20th June 2014 from Bedford St. Martins website: http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/fiction/elements.asp?e=5

Elements of Fiction
. Retrieved on 20th June 2014 from Colin Welch's Education Resources website: http://learn.lexiconic.net/elementsoffiction.htm
Style is the author's verbal identity, as their face and voice. By reflecting on their individuality, it's how they convey their opinions and how they see the world.
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