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Evolution of English

A lecture on the history of the English language
by

Ian Coleshaw

on 5 September 2013

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Transcript of Evolution of English

The Evolution of English
Some facts about English
Did you know?
Old English
Middle English
Modern English
5th Century
11th Century
15th Century
17th Century
Celtic
Latin
Celts
Romans
Anglo-Saxon,
Danish
Old Norse
Norman French
Latin, Greek,
French, Italian
Spanish,
American Indian
Arabic, Persian, Turkish
Hindi, Malay
Angles, Saxons, Jutes,
Danes, Frisians
Vikings
Normans
Renaissance
1st Century
Bede
Chaucer
Shakespeare
American English
Canadian English
Australian English
British English
Irish English
Scottish English
Indian English
South African English
A Timeline of English
Global English
Internet English
American English
The Age
of the
Dictionary
English
&
Empire
The English
of
Science
The King James Bible
Shakespeare
The Norman Conquest
English is the most widely spoken language in the world.
English is the official language in 54 countries and 27 non-sovereign entities.
It is the 3rd most common native language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish.
English is the international language of communications, science, IT, business, seafaring, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy.
Over 1 000 000 000 people speak English at a basic level.
Highest populations of native speakers:
USA - 215 000 000
UK - 61 000 000
Canada - 18 200 000
Australia - 15 500 000
Nigeria - 4 000 000
Ireland - 3 800 000
South Africa - 3 700 000
India has over 350 000 000 users
of English
The most common letter in English is "e",
The most common consonant is "r".
"bookkeeper" is the only unhyphenated English word with 3 consecutive double letters.
More English words begin with the letter "s" than any other letter.
"uncopyrightable" is the longest English word in normal use that contains no letter more than once.
This sentence contains all the letters of
the alphabet:
"The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog."
The word "alphabet" comes from the 1st two letters of the Greek alphabet: "alpha" + "beta"
The longest word in English without a true vowel is "rhythym".
The oldest word in English is "town".
The longest word in English is: "pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis"
The shortest complete sentence in
English is: "Go."
"invisibility" is the only word in English that has one vowel.
"goddessship" is the only word in English with a triple letter.
The longest 1 syllable word is "screeched"
410 AD
1066 AD
1564 - 1616 AD
1611 AD
17th Century
1583 - 1914 AD
1755 AD
1607 - 2013 AD
1972 - 2013 AD
21st Century
Anglo Saxon
Delecto, tyrannus, amicus,
mater, diax, pax, nihil, quo,
uxor, pro,fenestra, sub
410 AD
450 AD
house
woman
loaf
wolf
Days of the Week
Tuesday = Tywa
Wednesday = Wodin
Thursday = Thunor
Friday = Freya
597 AD
martyr
bishop
font
Vikings
800 AD
Christian Missionaries
Anglo Saxons
Romans
drag, ransack, thrust,
die, give, take, they,
them, their
3rd person singular


-s
He walk
s
She talk
s
to be
verb
I
am
You
are
S/he
is
Vocabulary
Sk-
sounds:
sk
irt
sk
y
sk
in
sk
ill
Old Norse
Old English
egg
ey
sister
sweoster
reike
path
site
sorrow
vs.
raise
rise
sick
ill
Latin
Old English
Modern English
missa
scola
crucem
grammatica
mechanicus
moesse
scol
cruc
grammatic
mechanisc
mass
school
cross
grammar
mechanical
Grammar
1066 AD
cuncil
parlement
souveran
clerc
council
parliament
sovereign
clerk
Military
army, battle, captain, combat,
defend, enemy, navy, seige,
soldier, spy
Fashion
apparel, boots, button,
diamond, dress, fur,
jewel, pearl,
robe, veil
The Home
ceiling, chair, couch,
curtain, lamp, parlour,
pillar, towel
Nouns & verbs
I hope this helps to clarify things a bit.I hope this helps to clarify things a bit.I hope this helps to clarify things a bit.
Food
French
English
beef
cow
mutton
sheep
pork
swine
+/- 10 000
words
+/- 2 000
words
Intermarriage
King John of England
King Philip of France
William the Conqueror
12th Century
vs.
100 Years War
The Rise of English
Middle English Spelling
writing mistakes
different dialects & spelling
maht mahte mihhte mayht mihte micht mist michtis mithe micthe myht mythe
qu
for
cw
gh
for
h
ch
for
c
ou
for
u
c
before
e
instead of
s
Norman influence:
qu
een =
cw
en
ni
gh
t & enou
gh
ch
ur
ch
h
ou
se
c
ircle &
c
ell
u? v? n? m?
U
=
O
: c
o
me, l
o
ve,
o
ne, s
o
n
1564 - 1616 AD
Introduced almost 3 000 new words:
Eat our flesh and blood...
...out of house and home
Good riddance to the green-eyed monster
Breaking the ice
Dead as a doornail
Get your money's worth
...puppy dog, lonely, gust, gloomy,
hobnob, dawn, critic, amazement,
obscene, hint, mimic, rant, submerge
radiance, grovel, flawed, drugged,
addiction, bet, bump, worthless, zany...
1611 AD
Irregular verbs:
digged
- dug

gat
- got

spake
- spoke
3rd person singular:

-th
not
-s
he run
neth
- he run
s
labour of love
wisdom of Solomon
go the extra mile
heart's desire
fight the good fight
from strength to strength
get to the root of the matter
the salt of the earth
the writing's on the wall
fire and brimstone
took root
to the ends of the earth
a leopard can't change its spots
a wolf in sheep's clothing
New Expressions
17th Century
Robert Hook
1635-1703
Robert Boyle
1627-1691
Isaac Newton
1643-1727
pomum
terra
arbor
English = faster
acid (1626)
gravity (1641)
electricity
(1646)
pendulum
(1660)
cardiac, tonsil, ovary, sternum, penis, vagina, chloroform, argon, gastritus, biology, watt, triassic, laryngitis, chlorophyll, centigrade, electron, ethnology, cretaceous, altimeter, joule...
The sun never sets on the English language
1583-1914 AD
Elizabeth I (1603)
Elizabeth II (1952)
5 - 7 million
250 million
Caribbean
barbecue (1650)
canoe (1550)
cannibal (1550)
India
yoga (1820)
cummerbund (1610)
crimson (1500)
Africa
voodoo (1850)
zombie (1871)
Australia
nugget (1852)
boomerang (1827)
walkabout (1828)
British Empire:
26 000 000km
2
400 000 000 people
Johnson's Dictionary
Samuel Johnson
(1709 - 1784)
1746 - 1755
45cm
42 773
words
Oxford English Dictionary
70 years
1928
moose
raccoon
Dutch
coleslaw
cookies
Germans
pretzels
delicatessen
Italians
pizza
pasta
mafia
breakeven (1914)
bottomline (1967)
blue chip (1921)
white collar (1865)
merger (1926)
downsizing (1986)
Capitalism
City Life
freeway (1930)
subway (1893)
parking lots (1924)
Old English words
English
lexicographers
1857
Fall
Autumn
faucet
tap
diaper
nappy
candy
sweets
1972
email
e
lectronic

+
mail
internet
1991
messaging
inbox
spam
host
Blah blah
blah blah
blah...
Blah blah blah
blah blah blah
blah blah...
download
toolbar
firewall
...in my humble opinion...
...by the way...
...for your information...
frequently asked questions
...laughing out loud... ...love you lots...
imho
fyi
btw
faq
lol
1998
2004
1982
hard drive
1973
1500 years
320 - 380 million
300 - 500 million
500 - 1000 million
Samuel Johnson
1709 - 1784
lexicographer
1857
1928
Full transcript