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George Washington & John Adams Presidencies
Transcript of George Washington & John Adams Presidencies
On April 6, 1789, 1789, 69 members of Congress cast their ballots to elect George Washington the first president of the United States.
He served from 1789-1797 (2 terms) and then resigned. Washington: a. During which years was Washington president? He was affiliated with the federalist party.
Federalists believed in a strong national government, had a loose interpretation of the constitution, they were pro British in foreign affairs, they believed in ruling power of the elite.
Supporters: business men, lawyers, merchants, land owners
National bank- supported; "Necessary and proper"; elasticity clause Washington: With which political party was he affiliated & what was the party's opinion on government? John Adams was Washington's Vice President. Back then the Vice President was whoever had the second most votes for President. Adams became president when Washington stepped down. Washington: Who was Washington's Vice President? The presidential cabinet is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, who are generally the heads of the federal executive departments to advise and assist the president in carrying out his duties. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson; Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton; Secretary of War Henry Knox; and Attorney General Edmund Randolph Washington: What is a presidential cabinet & who were Washington's cabinet members and what were their titles? The Whiskey Rebellion was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791-1794, during the presidency of George Washington. Pennsylvania Farmers who sold their grain in the form of whiskey had to pay a new tax which they strongly resented. The tax was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to pay off the national debt. The Pennsylvania farmers refused to pay the excise tax imposed by congress; therefore Washington responded by sending a militia of 12,000 men but the rebels all went home before the arrival of the army so there was no confrontation. Washington: What was the whiskey Rebellion? The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new national government had the willingness and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws. The whiskey tax was repealed after Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party, which opposed Hamilton's Federalist Party, came to power in 1800. Washington: What did the Whiskey Rebellion demonstrate about the new government? The Proclamation of Neutrality was a formal announcement issued by George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring that the nation would be neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. Legal proceedings were threatened against any American providing assistance to any country at war Washington: What was the Proclamation of Neutrality? The Farewell Address had three important pieces of advice that Washington gave America. He argued and warned against dangers of political parties. He also wanted to entangle alliances and warned the United States to stay out of permanent global alliances. In regards to the United States credit rating, he promoted that the government credit must remain stable. Washington: What 3 pieces of advice did Washington give in his farewell address? 1797-1801. He took office after president Washington stepped down in 1797. Adams had a miserable presidency. He spoke with a lisp and he was insecure. Adams: During which years was Adams president? He was affiliated withe the Federalist party
Federalists believed in a strong national government, had a loose interpretation of the Constitution, were pro British in foreign affairs, and believed the elite should be the ruling power.
Supporters- business men, lawyers, merchants, and landowners
Economy- based on trade and commerce
National Bank- supported; "necessary and proper"; elasticity clause
Protective Tariffs- supported; help build industry and manufacturing Adams: With which political party was he affiliated and what was the party's opinion on government? Thomas Jefferson. However, Jefferson constantly criticized Adams and wrote bad thing about him to in turn later get hiself elected. 1800- Adams feared a new party coming into office so he appointed Federalist judges to keep the Federalist party in charge. They were known as the "Midnight Judges" Adams: Who was John Adams Vice President? John Marshall was supreme court justice during Adams administration. All of his court cases expanded the power of the Judicial Branch and supported a strong national government. Adams: Who is John Marshall? Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison (1803) was the first important case before Marshall's Court. In that case, the Supreme Court invalidated a provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 on the grounds that it violated the Constitution by attempting to expand the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Marbury was the first and only case in which the Marshall Court ruled an act of Congress unconstitutional, and thereby reinforced the doctrine of judicial review.
Fletcher v. Peck
Fletcher v. Peck (1810) was the first case in which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional, though the Court had long before voided a state law as conflicting with the combination of the Constitution together with a treaty (Marshall had represented the losing side in that 1796 case) Adams: What are two important Supreme Court Cases he resided over? The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, during the administration of John Adams, that Americans interpreted as an insult from France. It led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi-War, which raged at sea from 1798 to 1800. The Federalist Party took advantage of the national anger to build an army and pass the Alien and Sedition Acts to damage the rival Democratic-Republican Party. The XYZ Affair was an incident the precipitated an undeclaired war with France. Three French officials ( which were identified as X, Y, and Z- now known as the XYZ Affairs) Demanded American emissaries to pay a bribe before negotiating disputes between the two countries. Adams: What is the XYZ Affair? President Adams resisted the popular sentiment for war. Recognizing that the US Army and Navy were not yet strong enough to fight a major power, the president avoided war and sent new ministers to Paris. Adams: How did Adams respond to the XYZ Affair?
The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress in the aftermath of the French Revolution and during an undeclared naval war with Britain and France, later known as the Quasi-War. They were signed into law by President John Adams.
The Alien Acts authorized the president to deport any aliens considered dangerous and to detain any enemy aliens in time of war.
The Sedition Act made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the president or Congress and imposed heavy penalties (fines or imprisonment) for editors who violated the law. Adams: What did the Alien & Sedition Acts do? The Kentucky legislature adopted a resolution that had been written by Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia legislature adopted a resolution introduced by James Madison. Both resolutions declaredthat the states had entered into a "compact" in forming the national govt. and therefore if any act of federal govt. broke the compact a state could nullify the federal law. The Federalists lost their majority in Congree after the Virginia and Kentucky laws and the election of 1800, and the new Republican majority either allowed the acts to expire or repealed them. Also, the Supreme Court under John Marshall asserted its' power as the court of the last report in deciding whether or not a certain law was constitutional. Adams: What effect did these laws have on the Federalist Party?