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History of Education 1900 - 1950
Transcript of History of Education 1900 - 1950
Kindergarten in itself was a type of reform intended to “rescue” entire families of immigrants and fashion them into Americans.
Dewey’s notion of individualized instruction was left behind as “urban school populations were growing faster than classrooms could be built”.
One-size-fits-all became the theme.
WHA began broadcasting music education programs on the radio. This was one of the first uses of audio for education. This laid the foundation for many teaching technologies that are used today.
The period of 1900 to 1919 saw the onslaught of intelligence testing for Army recruits.
Attempts to create high schools for factory workers failed In 1911.
1911 - The first Montessori school in the U.S. opens in Tarrytown, New York.
1913 - Edward Lee Thorndike's book, Educational Psychology: The Psychology of Learning, is published.
A 1913 experiment in New York City to hold “elementary education for adults” was successful.
Immigrant education programs sponsored by the government prevailed only from 1915 to 1917.
1916 - Louis M. Terman and his team of Stanford University graduate students complete an American version of the Binet-Simon Scale. The Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale becomes a widely-used individual intelligence test, and the concept of the intelligence quotient (or IQ) is born.
1916, the American Federation of Teachers is funded. The AFT identified with the working class and the union movement.
1916 - John Dewey's Democracy and Education. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education is published.
In 1917, the National Education Association (NEA) was reorganized to better mobilize and represent teachers and educational staff. The NEA saw itself as an upper-middle-class professional organization.
1919 - The Progressive Education Association is founded with the goal of reforming American education.
Before 1920, seven states were conducting “factory classes”. 1910s The Great Depression will continue until the 1940s.
In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Fair Labor Standards Act, which, among other things, placed limits on many forms of child labor.
Only half of those between the ages of 14 and 16 were attending school.
Teachers were losing their jobs: In New York City alone, 7,000 teachers were unemployed.
Those teachers who still had work often endured reduced wages.
The school year was cut back and the concept of the junior high school was slowly catching on.
Some students dropped out because they had no clothes to wear and no supplies to take to school.
Lack of funds permitted textbooks to remain in disrepair, and censorship of textbooks continued.
Initially used by the U.S. military for training purposes in World War II, overhead projectors quickly spread to schools and other organizations around the country allowing for visual elements to be added to lessons that the entire class could see at the same time.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was developed by David Wechsler. It introduced the concept of the "deviation IQ", which calculates IQ scores based on how far subjects' scores deviat from the average score of others who are the same age. These tests are still widely used in US schools today to help identify students needing special education .
Dick and Jane books were published and taught 85 million first graders to read.
Congress designated "The Star Spangled Banner" as the United States' national anthem. 1930s By 1940, students were sent on to the next grade “until they entered trade or commercial courses and dropped out of school to work”.
Also in 1940, “30% of city dwellers had completed high school compared with only 12% of farmers”.
1940, the ballpoint pen started to gain recognition as being a useful tool in the classroom. The first ballpoint pens went on sale in New York City on 29 October 1945 for US $9.75 each.
Prince v. Massachusetts (1944), the Supreme Court held that the government has broad authority to regulate the actions and treatment of children. Parental authority is not absolute and can be permissibly restricted if doing so is in the interests of a child's welfare
1946 - In the landmark court case of Mendez vs. Westminster and the California Board of Education, the U. S. District Court in Los Angeles rules that educating children of Mexican descent in separate facilities is unconstitutional, thus prohibiting segregation in California schools and setting an important precedent for Brown vs. Board of Education.
1946 - Recognizing "the need for a basis for a school lunch program," the 79th Congress approves the National School Lunch Act.
1947 - In the case of Everson v. Board of Education, the U.S. Supreme Court rules for a New Jersey law which allowed reimbursements of transportation costs to parents of children who rode public transportation to school.
By 1947, over 8 million of the same age group had only a 5th grade education at best.
1948 - In the case of McCollum v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court rules that schools cannot allow "released time" during the school day which allows students to participate in religious education in their public school classrooms.
1948, the United States still had “over 75,000 one-room schools”.
More than three million of those aged 14 and over were not attending school at all.
Frank W. Cyr, a professor at Columbia University's Teachers College, organized a national conference on student transportation. The conference resulted in the adoption of standards for the nation's school buses, including the shade of yellow.
The computer age began as the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC), the first vacuum-tube computer, was built for the U.S. military by Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. This single invention marks one of the greatest inventions of all time. 1900s: More than 150 state normal schools existed by 1900.
The notion of kindergarten was already 30 years old, but only 7% of children in the U.S. were enrolled.
80% of enrolled students actually graduated from high school, HS often meant “a room added to a graded elementary school".
Although it was inferior to the education of white students, education for blacks “was more accessible" than in the past.
The Association of American Universities was founded to promote higher standards and to put U.S. universities on an equal footing with their European counterparts.
Joliet Junior College in Joliet, Illinois, opened, becoming the first public community college in the U.S.
Educational reformer Ella Flagg Young became superintendent of the Chicago Public Schools. She was the first female superintendent of a large city school system. One year later, she was elected president of the National Education Association.
The National Committee for Mental Hygiene (NCMH) emerged. These “reform-minded academicians and psychiatrists” including William James believed that mental illness was the plaguing the nation. For several decades to come, they would be successful in making the American school the location of treatment for social problems.
The first crayola crayons were introduced in 1903. The box of eight crayons sold for a nickel.
1903, Ivan Pavlov reads his paper, The Experimental Psychology and Psychopathology of Animals, at the 14th International Medical Congress in Madrid, explaining his concept of the conditioned reflex, an important component of classical conditioning.
1905 - Alfred Binet's article, "New Methods for the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals".
Mass-produced paper and pencils became more readily available and pencils replaced the school slate, making it easier to write. At the turn of the century, America realized “that public education was a necessary social investment, that popular aspirations and national social and economic well-being demanded that it also be universal” From 1900 to 1950, Administrative Progressives “shaped the agenda and implementation of school reform more powerfully than any other group has done before or since”. The Progressive Education Movement in full force during the first two decades of the century consisted of two branches: Dewey argued that scientists cannot operate without labs, so the same is true of educators. Progressive educators attempted to make schools “as pleasurable and failure-free as possible”. Dewey’s 1913 “Monograph on Interest and Effort in Education” was one of the five greatest curriculum events of the twentieth century: In it, he announced that students who are interested in a topic tend to learn more than their peers. Using this new information about students promised to lead to better practice in the classroom. In contrast, representatives from the scientific management period, was at its height from 1900 to 1925. Charles Judd took over the education program there at Chicago University, were Dewey had had hopes of changing society while Judd successfully changed the face of education. Judd’s goal was to “change education through professionalization”. Judd separated education courses at the University of Chicago from the philosophy department. By rallying colleagues, he formed the Judd Group which lent itself well to the “increasing bureaucracy in schools and universities”. This was also the period when there was discussion about forming a Department of Education. 20% of 5-year-olds were enrolled in kindergarten.
For most of the nation, compulsory schooling until 16 became the norm.
Students began to be promoted by age, rather than test score.
By the end of the 1920s, people were talking about the formation of junior high schools, and only a very few already existed.
Since child labor experienced a reduction, more children stayed in school, but in 1920, only 17% of those who stayed in school actually graduated.
1920 - John B. Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner conduct their experiments using classical conditioning with children. Often referred to as the Little Albert study.
1924 - Max Wertheimer describes the principles of Gestalt Theory to the Kant Society in Berlin.
By 1925, “state departments of education managed to ‘standardize’ more than 40,000 schools”.
1925 - Tennessee vs. John Scopes ("the Monkey Trial") captures national attention as John Scopes, a high school biology teacher, is charged with the heinous crime of teaching evolution. The trial ends in Scopes' conviction.
1926 - The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is first administered.
1929 - Jean Piaget's The Child's Conception of the World is published. His theory of cognitive development becomes an important influence in American developmental psychology and education. 1920s On July 23, 1930, the Lemon Grove school board decided to build a separate school for children of Mexican heritage without SAN DIEGO References Chase, R.R. (n.d.). Fun facts. Retrieved from
(n.d.). The History of American Education 1900-1950. Video retrieved from
History of education in the United States. (n.d.) In Wikipedia the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_the_United_States.
The Lemon Grove incident. (n.d.) In Wikipedia the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemon_Grove_Incident.
Sanchez, L. (2011 March 21). Lemon Grove Incident’ Remembered 80 Years Later. Lemon Grove
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dissertation). History of Literacy. Retrieved from
Tate, B. (n.d.) History of Education Timeline. Retrieved from http://edhistory.com.
Timeline of young people's rights in the United States. (n.d.) In Wikipedia the free encyclopedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_children%27s_rights_in_the_United_States#19th_century. Edward Thorndike
“mass education wing"
(science of education) John Dewey
“child centered wing”
(creative self-expression) AND 1940s T I M E L I N E The Alvarez VS. the Board of Trustees of the Lemon Grove School District, also known as 'The Lemon Grove Incident', resulted in a California law that allowed Hispanic students to study with whites. The landmark lawsuit became the first successful school desegregation court decision in the history of the United States. giving notice to their parents. On January 5, 1931, Lemon Grove Grammar School principal Jerome Green, acting under instructions from school trustees, turned away Mexican children at the schoolhouse door, directing them to the new school, which was fashioned from a stable. January 28th 2013 EDUC600
Point Loma Nazarene University